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Kuleshov
He said that when we watch a film or
programme, we try to create meaning
and connect events to see a line of
cause and effect. Even if there are no
connections, we still try to make them
to make sense of what we are
watching.




Example: we try…

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Todorov
He proposed a basic structure for all
narratives: begins with equilibrium,
then an agent of disruption causes
disequilibrium followed by a return to
equilibrium as the agent of disruption
is eliminated.


Example: romantic comedies; the two
protagonists start in their normal
everyday lives, meet and seem happy,
then something…

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Propp
He said that there were always 8
different types of characters: the hero,
the villain, the donor, the dispatcher,
the false hero, the helper, the princess
and her father. One person in a film or
programme can be more than one
character.
Example: Harry Potter ­ hero; Harry
Potter,…

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Levi Strauss
He stated that there had to be a binary
opposition in a film or programme.
This is usually presented through the
two sides of good and evil.




Example: Star Wars ­ the binary
opposition of the Light and Dark side.

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