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Pangaea
· During the Late Permian, tectonic movement of the
plates led to the formation of one huge land mass
called PANGAEA.
· The Pangaea supercontinent led to many changes
in the shape of the land, glaciation patterns and
climate, which in turn altered sea level and salinity
of the oceans.
· These affects are often interlinked. The presence of
Pangaea helped to initiate extreme environments,
and along with other evidence, such as volcanism
and the impact, led to the biggest extinction seen
in the history of Earth.…read more

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What happened to Pangaea?
· Two-hundred million years
ago rifting was breaking up
the supercontinent of
Pangaea.
· This rifting was accompanied
by intense volcanic activity
with high levels of carbon
dioxide emissions.
· Over a period of just 20,000
years, carbon dioxide levels
in the atmosphere had
doubled.…read more

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Gondwanaland and Laurasia
· The massive land split into two called
Gondwanaland and Laurasia.
· Over time, Gondwanaland broke apart,
forming the continents of South America,
Africa, the Indian Sub Continent , Australia,
and Antarctica.
· Laurasia then split into North America and
Eurasia.…read more

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Laurasia was the northernmost of
two supercontinents that formed part
of the Pangaea supercontinent from
Laurasia approximately 510 to 200 million years
ago.
· It separated from
Gondwanaland 200 to 180 MYA (the
late Triassic era) during the breakup of
Pangaea, drifting further north after
the split.
· Laurasia included most of the
landmasses which make up today's
continents of the Northern
Hemisphere, chiefly Laurentia (i.e. the
core North American
continent), Baltica, Siberia, Kazakhstan
ia, and the North China and East
China.…read more

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Tethys sea
· About 250 million years ago, during the Triassic, a new
ocean began forming in the southern end of the Paleo-
Tethys Ocean.
· A rift formed along the northern continental shelf of
Southern Pangaea.
· Over the next 60 million years, that piece of shelf,
known as Cimmeria, travelled north, pushing the floor
of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean under the eastern end of
Northern Pangaea (Laurasia).
· The Tethys Ocean formed between Cimmeria and
Gondwanaland, directly over where the Paleo-Tethys
used to be.…read more

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