Formation of Erosional and Depositional Landforms

Erosional and Depositional Landforms around the coastal zone

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  • Created on: 01-06-16 15:37
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Erosional Landforms
Headlands and Bays
Headlands are formed when the sea attacks a section of the coast with
alternating bands of more and less resistant rocks
Less resistant rock (e.g. clay and sand) erode more quickly than more
resistant rock (e.g. chalk)
The bands of less resistant rock erode more quickly, forming bays
The bands of more resistant rock don't erode as quickly, leaving a
section of land jutting out to sea, forming headlands
Example: Lulworth Cove in Dorset
The bands of more and less resistant rock must be at 90 degrees to the
coastline (discordant coastline)
Caves, Arches, Stacks and Stumps
a. Hydraulic action causes a large crack or weakness in a
headland to open up
b. Hydraulic action and abrasion causes the crack to grow into a
small cave
c. The cave becomes larger through erosional processes
a. Erosion is concentrated on the back of the cave until the back
breaks through the headland forming an arch
a. The arch is eroded at its base and roof by attrition, abrasion and
hydraulic action
b. Undercutting occurs
c. The arch collapses to form a stack because the base can no
longer support the roof
a. The stack is eroded by hydraulic action, attrition and abrasion
until it forms a stump
Example: Old Harry's Wife
Cliffs and Wave-cut Platforms
Cliff: a large area of rock or a mountain with a very steep side, often at
the edge of the sea or a river
Cliffs formed by erosion and weathering
Formation of Cliffs:
a. Weathering weakens the top of the cliff
b. Strong waves hit the base of the cliff forming a wave-cut notch
c. The wave-cut notch gets bigger, resulting in the cliff collapsing
d. The backwash then carries the rubble back to sea
e. The process repeats
Example Beachy Head
Wave cut platform- a narrow area at the bottom of a cliff along a
shoreline formed by erosion
Example: Kimmeridge bay, Dorset

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a. Cliff next to the sea, destructive waves slowly erode the cliff
(hydraulic action)
b. Continuous erosion causes a wave cut notch and a cave is
c.…read more

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Depositional Landforms
Made up of eroded material that has been transported from elsewhere
and deposited by the sea
Constructive waves build up beaches
What the beach is made up of (sand or pebbles) depends on the area's
geology and the wave's energy
Destructive waves remove the material from some beaches which
contributes to the build-up of others
Examples: Camber Sands and Brighton Beach
Material on the beach may have been eroded form a cliff or removed
from a beach elsewhere
Longshore drift transports material…read more

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