Foreign Policy USA, 1929-2000

Complete notes on 'The USA and the wider world, 1929-2000'

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  • Created on: 30-05-14 10:21
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Policy of Isolationism
In the 1920s US helped Europe recover from WW1 by lending money and taking lead in disarmament meetings (to
prevent future war)
The great depression brought America to isolationism as they needed to redevelop their economic state
Increasing involvement in world affairs
· Good Neighbour Policy ­ developed link trades with Latin America
· Neutrality Acts ­ intended to keep America out of future wars, banned sale of munitions to countries
involved in war.
· `Cash and Carry' ­ countries could buy munitions from the US as long as they paid cash and could transport
· Lend-Lease ­ US lent military equipment to Britain
· Atlantic Charter ­ set of goals eg: final destruction of Nazis, freedom of trade, freedom of seas
Concern over Japan
· When Japan invades China, America's reaction is minimal
· USS Panay Incident ­ Japanese blew up American ship, Americans were killed, America only demanded an
apology and money

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Pearl Harbour ­ America enters WW2
· 7 December 1941 ­ Japanese force attacked US naval fleet at Pearl Harbour (Hawaii)
· US intelligence worked out Japanese movements but failed to warn Pearl Harbour in time
· US declared war on Japan with UK
· Germany & Italy helped Japan
War in Europe
· Priority = defeat of Germany
· Nov '42 ­ US offensive in North Africa
· May '43 ­ Germans defeated in N.…read more

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Reasons for Cold War
· US feared spread of communism
· USSR occupied large parts of Eastern Europe through Satellite States
Policy of Containment
Truman Doctrine 1947
· Truman offered to help any government threatened by communism
· Containment ­ preventing the expansion of Communism into non-Communist countries
Marshall Plan 1947
· Marshall offered over $13 billion in aid to countries recovering from war
· Truman believed that countries in a strong economic state would be able to repel communism
· Stalin refused to…read more

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Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
· Fidel Castro becomes new leader of Cuba ­ 1959
· Castro ejected all US investment and US refused to import their sugar ­so Castro went to Khrushchev
· Became communist ­ worried Kennedy
· Bay of Pigs 1961 ­ failed attempt to overthrow Castro as forces Castro closer to USSR
· 14 October U2 spy plane took photos of soviet missile site in Cuba
· Blockade
· Kennedy appeared to have won
· Both Kennedy and Khrushchev accused of…read more

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· Calming tensions
· Strategic Arms Limitation Talks ­ signed 1972
· Limited number of missiles
· 1st agreement between the superpowers
Helsinki Agreements 1975
· USA, USSR & 33 other nations
· High hand shake
· Nixon wanted to improve relations with China
· `Ping Pong Dipomacy' ­ 1971
· China joined united nations
· Nixon visited `72
· USSR invaded Afghanistan 1979
· Carter Doctrine ­ containment in middle…read more

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· Reagan became president ­ `Evil Empire'
· 1983 SDI `Star Wars' ­ destroy soviet missiles in space ­ USSR no longer had the economic ability to fund
keeping up with the USSR
Reagan & Gorbachev
· Glasnost ­ openness
· Perestroika ­ restructuring
· Geneva Accord ­ speed up arms reduction talks
· INF (Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty) ­ destroy all short/medium range weapons
· CFE ­ reduced numbers of tanks, missiles etc
· START 1 ­ reduce nuclear arms
End of…read more


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