Foreign Policy Notes

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Foreign Policy 15581567
STAGE ONE
Elizabeth's main foreign policy aims were:
1. Security
2. Preserve the Antwerp cloth trade
3. Secure the Northern frontier
4. Protect the channel coast
5. Maintain friendships with both France and Spain
SCOTLAND: 156067
1560 Francis II dies and leaves Mary Queen of Scots widowed.
1561 Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland, unwelcomed, and is forced to accept the
political power of the Protestant Lords of the Congregation.
1567 Mary Queen of Scots is forced to abdicate, fleeing to England for refuge later that year.
FRANCE: 15581564
1558 Death of Henry II of France led to great political instability as Francis was still a child
and noble families fought for factional control of the government, also at this time began
the rise of the Huguenots in the Northern territories.
1559 The peace treaty of Cateau Cambrésis was signed between England, France and Spain,
putting an end to the 60 year ongoing conflict, confirming the loss of Calais for England (but
only for eight years), confirming the changed to Spanish borders in the Netherlands. Also in
this year Francis II ascends to the throne and accepts the regency of Catherine De Medici.
1560 French troops are placed in Scotland to help defend her borders but also to keep the
Protestant Lords in check, supporting Mary's mother, Mary de Guise. The Guise faction
began the rise to power in French court, including Mary's uncle, the Duke of Guise.
1562 FRENCH WARS OF RELIGION BEGIN: Civil war in France between Protestants and
Catholics following the St Bartholomew's day massacre at Vassy, resulting in the deaths of
thousands of Huguenot Protestants, sparking the wars and massacres all over the country.
1564 Treaty of Troyes was signed between England and France which officially ended
England's involvement in the French Wars of Religion. England's staged intervention in the
wars was minor, consisting only of the capture of the port of Le Havre which was retaken in
1563 anyway. This treaty meant that Elizabeth was to remove troops and give up her claim
to Calais forever, she reluctantly agreed but she received half a million crowns to
compensate.

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SCOTTISH REFORMATION:
1. 1528 Hamilton is burnt at the stake and becomes a martyr for the Protestant
cause
2. 1546 Wishart is burnt at the stake and becomes a martyr for the Protestant
cause and the last Scottish cardinal David Beaton is murdered, the town of St
Andrews is seized.
3. 1557 The Protestant Lords sign a covenant to `establish the reformed faith' in
Scotland.
4.…read more

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Why did Elizabeth sign away her claim to Calais?
1. Put less financial stress on England as Calais was very expensive to maintain overseas
2. She could be at peace with France and rebuild her own economy whilst they were
dealing with the Wars of Religion.
3. Her attentions could be turned to more pressing matters at hand such as matters in
the Netherlands or even stretch to claim parts of the New World.
RELATIONS WITH SPAIN: Late 1560s
1.…read more

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STAGE TWO
Elizabeth's main foreign policy aims were:
Minimise the Spanish control in the Netherlands.
Limit the expansionist attitudes of the French.
Minimise the Spanish military presence in the Netherlands.
DEVELOPMENTS: 15681572
1. The Auld Alliance is temporarily revived by James VI.
2. Spain has increased its military capabilities by taking control of Portugal for no
apparent reason.
3. Elizabeth's courtship with Henri, Duke of Alençon, later the Second Duke of Anjou,
begins.
DEVELOPMENTS IN ENGLISH RELATIONS TO SPAIN AND THE NETHERLANDS: 15721584
1.…read more

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TREATY OF NEMOURS: JUNE 1585
The protestant Henry of Navarre submitted to the Catholic league that was formed
under Joinville and converted to CATHOLICISM NOT COMMUNISM.
This led to the War of Three Henries which distracted France from any major
intervention in the Netherlands.
TREATY OF NONSUCH: 1585
England officially agrees to actively aid the war in the Netherlands providing them
with troops and funds.
Provoked by the earlier signing of Joinville in 1583.…read more

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Philip II of Spain had seen this whole expedition as a `catholic crusade' despite the
Pope's scepticism.
The armada was defeated by the English and is the greatest military victory of the
Tudor age.
THROUGH 1585 TO 1603 EXPEDITIONS ON LAND IN THE AMERICAS WERE ONGOING AND
THE ENGLISH COLONISED MANY AREAS OF AMERICA INCLUDING VIRGINIA and horrible
histories said that there was a guy who forgot to bring supplies to the colonies but
remembered 130 pairs of shoes instead.…read more

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Aid was sent to Henry of Navarre, the Protestant heir of the French throne, in 1589 a
total of 3600 men were sent to Normandy and Maine where conditions were hard
and the army was worn down to only 800 men to be fit for service.
However in 1593 Henry of Navarre converted to Catholicism, causing Elizabeth to
immediately withdraw her troops.
BRITTANY:
1590 Norris and 400 men were sent to help rebels, but the force was wasted by
desertion and disease including Norris himself.…read more

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By 1590 Ireland had been a continuing problem for the crown.
THE NINE YEARS WAR: TYRONE'S REBELLION
1594/5 rebellion broke out throughout Ireland.
Third major large scale rebellion in Ireland in the 1500s.
Closely linked to the AngloSpanish war.
Proved to be more difficult than any other rebellion.
Fought between Hugh O'Neill, Hugh O'Donnell and the English forces opposing
their rule over Ireland.…read more

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