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Forces of Transport (P3)

Speed
Speed is measured in metres per second (m/s), kilometres per hours (km/h) or
miles per hour (mph).

To wok out the speed of any moving object we need to know two things:
The distance it travels.
The time taken to travel the distance.

Then calculate…

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The acceleration of an object is the change in speed per second. In other
words, it is a measure of how quickly an object speeds up or slows down.
Acceleration has only one unit: metres per second per second (m/s2).

To work out the acceleration of any moving object we…

Page 3

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Stopping Distance
The stopping distance of a vehicle depends on...
The thinking distance- the distance travelled by the vehicle form the
point the driver realises he need to brake to when he applies the brakes
The braking distance- the distance travelled by the vehicle form the
point the driver applies…

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The amount of work done depends on...
The size of the force in Newton's
The distance the object is moved in metres.



Power
Power is a measure of how quickly work is done. The unit of power is the watt,
W.
Some cars have much higher power ratings than others…

Page 5

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The energy required to increase the kinetic energy
The energy required to work against friction
Driving style and speed
Road conditions.

Car safety features
Modern cars have safety features that absorb energy on collision including...
Seatbelts- to prevent the people in the car from being propelled out of
the windscreen…

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Adjustable seating allows all drivers to obtain a comfortable position in
which they can reach the steering wheel and control pedals easily.

Reducing Stopping Forces
The stopping forces experienced by the people in the car in a collision can be
reduced by...
Increasing the stopping or collision time
Increasing the…

Page 7

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Parachutes are designed to have a larger surface area to increase air
resistance.
Roof boxes on cars may provide useful luggage space but they increase
air resistance.
Deflectors on lorries and caravans will reduce air resistance.
Sports cars are wedged- shaped to reduce air resistance.

When a skydiver jumps out…

Page 8

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Gravitational Potential Energy & Kinetic Energy
When an object falls, its gravitational potential energy is transferred to kinetic
energy. There are many theme park rides which use this transfer of energy.

1) On most roller-coasters, the cars start high up with a lot of gravitation
potentials energy.
2) As the…

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