Food Webs

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a) Define the term ecosystem.
Ecosystem: a relatively self-contained system including all the living organisms and their
environment, interacting with each other.
b) State that ecosystems are dynamic systems.
They are dynamic systems as changes are happening in it all the time through interactions.
Energy and materials constantly pass through the ecosystem, from one organism to another.
c) Define the terms biotic factor and Abiotic factor.
Biotic factor: a living component of the environment that affects the disruption and
abundance of a species, for example, predation or competition.
Abiotic factor: a non-living component of the environment that affects the disruption and
abundance of a species, for example, temperature or light intensity.
d) Define the terms producer, consumer, decomposer and trophic level.
Producer: an organism that transfers energy from light or inorganic compounds to organic
compounds.
Consumer: an organism that obtains its energy from organic compounds such as
carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Decomposer: an organism that breaks down organic remains of another organism,
returning matter from them to the soil and air.
Trophic Level: the stage of a food chain at which an organism feeds.

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