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BALANCED DIET
· Contains the right amount of each dietary
component
· CARBOHYDRATES: Energy
· FATS: Energy store, insulation, protection
· PROTEIN: Growth and repair, production of
enzymes
· VITAMINS/MINERALS: Needed for different body
functions (calcium ­ needed for bones)
· FIBRE: Ensures proper functioning of digestive
system
· WATER: Transports substances in blood, chemical
reactions take place in it in cells…read more

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MALNUTRITION
· Not enough of one or morenutrients
· Caused by lack of food, not enough of
anything
· Caused by unbalanced diet, which can lead to
deficiency diseases such as marasmus.
· Can also be caused by difficulty absorbing
food into bloodstream…read more

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OBESITY
· Caused by overnutrition and lack of exercise
· BMI >30 or 20% over normal body weight
· Excess intake of sugary and fatty foods
· Rarely caused by underactive thyroid gland
· Increases risk of CHD, diabetes etc…read more

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CHD
· Coronary heart disease
· Reduced blood flow to the heart
· Unhealthy diet increases risk
· Lots of saturated fats mean lots of cholesterol
is produced, rise in blood cholesterol level
· More LDLs which stick to artery walls causing
atherosclerosis, narrowing the artery lumen
· Lots of salt raises blood pressure which
damages arteries, causing atherosclerosis…read more

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CHOLESTEROL
· Made by the body in liver
· Has to be transported in lipoproteins
· LDLs: `Bad' cholesterol, carries cholesterol from
liver to blood where it circulates until needed by
cells. Contains more fat and raises overall blood
cholesterol level
· HDLs: `Good' cholesterol, carries cholesterol from
body back to liver, lowers overall blood cholesterol
level and contains less fat.
· Lots of sat. fat increases LDL level
· Lots of polyunsat. fat increases HDL level…read more

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FOOD PRODUCTION
· Humans ultimately depend on plants for food
· Plants photosynthesise and produce
sugars/starch and other organic compounds
· We eat these directly or rear animals on them,
that we then eat too…read more

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