Food Technology AS Notes

Notes on Water, Fats, Proteins and Carbohydrates

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  • Created on: 10-04-13 12:32
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Section A
Composed of the elements: hydrogen and oxygen, in the ratio 2:1, HO
Sources Functions Properties
Taps, wells, bottled water Transports nutrients, oxygen, Colourless, odourless and
Fruit and vegetables hormones and enzymes around tasteless liquid
Drinks, e.g. tea and coffee the body Boils at 100°C and freezes at 0°C
Variety of foods, except dried Required for hydrolysis of Converts to a vapour at
foods nutrients during digestion temperatures above 100°C
Needed for all body fluids ­ Absorbs and retains heat easily
urine, saliva, blood and sweat Dissolves in a large number of
Part of all body cells substances (is an excellent
Regulates body temperature ­ solvent)
perspiration Neutral pH
Supplies the minerals calcium and
Quenches thirst
How much water should we drink?
Important to replace the fluid we lose when we breathe, sweat or urine
Amount of water a person needs to drink varies on these factors: size, temperature and how active they are
Department of Health recommends 1.2 litres of fluid a day = 6x 200ml or 8x150ml glasses
Why is too much water dangerous?
If you drink too much water, eventually the kidneys will not be able to work fast enough to remove sufficient
amounts from the body, so the blood becomes more dilute with low salt concentrations
The water then moves from the dilute blood to the cells and organs where there is less water
It will eventually cause your brain to swell, stopping it regulating vital functions such as breathing, and causing

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Is a macro nutrient
Eaten in large amounts and must be broken down by the body during digestion
Composed of the elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in no fixed ratio
In an E ­ shaped structure
Amount of energy derived from 1g of fat is 9 kilocalories
Essential fatty acids cannot be made in the body and must be obtained from food
They are needed for growth as they form part of the structure of all cell membranes
They also help in cholesterol metabolism…read more

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Include lots of fruit and vegetables in your diet
Use fat- free or low-fat dairy products
When eating out try to eat less fried foods and avoid biscuits, cakes and pastries
Use vegetable oil for frying
Effects of deficiency of fats Effects of excess of fats
Drowsiness, tired and slow to respond ­ due to lack Become overweight ­ risk of diabetes (type 2), heart
of energy attack, stroke and high blood pressure
Dry/ oily skin Saturated can raise blood cholesterol ­ increases risk
Stiff/…read more

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Is a macro nutrient
Eaten in large amounts and must be broken down by the body during digestion
Composed of the elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
Made up of chains of amino acids
Amount of energy derived from 1g of protein is 4 kilocalories
Of the 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins, eight are essential to the diet
They must be provided by the diet as they cannot be made in the body
Animal Protein(First Class Protein)
Dairy foods, meat, eggs and…read more

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Kwashiorkor A diet with more than 30% of your calorie intake
Common in areas of famine, limited food supply and being protein, causes a build up of toxic ketones
low levels of education (people don't understand This causes kidneys to go into overdrive to try and
how to eat a proper diet) flush these ketones from the body
Symptoms: skin pigments, decreased muscle mass, This can lead to losing a significant amount of water,
failure to gain weight and grow, large belly sticks out which…read more

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Granules of starch on plant cells such as potatoes, root vegetables and cereals make up the reserve
energy store of the plant
Cellulose and pectin
Cellulose (dietary fibre) is mainly found in the outer cell walls of cereals, vegetables and fruit
Pectin is the setting agent for jams ­ why strawberries and blackberries are good to use in jams
Pectin is found in the seeds and core of the fruit
Properties of carbohydrates
Maillard Reaction
Complex reaction between amino acids and sugars causing a brown…read more


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