Food & Sustainability

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  • Created by: Jaimita
  • Created on: 29-09-13 18:59
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Key Question 1.1: What is the global pattern of food consumption?
Global content if low calorie intake.
Pattern of high consumption
Food Supply: The Issues.
There is enough food in the world for everyone but the distribution is unbalanced.
In 2006 around 850 million people lived with food insecurity. (Unreliability of food supply.)
Food availability deficit Global imbalance of food between different developed countries.
2008 Food supply worsens > Food prices rose.
A greater percentage of the population in every part of the world now are richer and so along
with it comes a demand for meat produce and so again market forces react and prices rise as a
Type of Nutrition: Country and Description
USA, Brazil, Canada, UK, Italy, Australia, Egypt.
These countries are all primarily HIC's and have a
Obesity & Premature Death + Over nutrition high intake of 3000 ­ 3800 per person per day
when the average should be 1940 calories per
day for women and 2550 for men.
Balanced Diet & Under Nutrition Russia, Thailand, India. Have an average intake of
2200-2999 per person per day.
Malnutrition, Famine & Starvation. Mongolia, Madagascar and central African
countries all have a daily intake of 1500-2199
which is lower than the daily recommended
Key Facts:
1. 1 in 6 people do not get enough food to be healthy.
2. Hunger is caused by natural disasters, conflict poverty, poor agriculture, infrastructure and over
exploitation of the environment.
3. Every child whose physical and mental development is stunted by hunger stands to lose 5-10%
in lifetime earnings.
4. 35% of the population are undernourished.
5. Countries like India and Pakistan's population is under nourished by 20-34%.
6. Only 0-2.4% of the UK population is undernourished.
Key Words:
Under nutrition: When Calorie intake falls slightly below the normal requirement, this normally takes
place in low income countries on the verge of development into MIC's
Malnutrition: An imbalance between what a person eats and what is needed to maintain good
This can be in the form of overeating and so the body has higher levels of fat and sugars rather than a
balance between all the other food groups.
Starvation: A prolonged period of time in which person doesn't eat and so are deprived of food and
this eventually leads to death in the long term.
Over Nutrition: Food nutrients are oversupplied in relation to amount required so for example in
Africa many live on just wheat. This isn't enough as the only nutrition they are getting is fibre and no
Obesity: A medical condition in which excess fat which has been consumed or converted through
excess calorie intake leading to health problems and reduced life expectancy.

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Case Study: Kenya
Location: Wajir, Kenya
Key Facts on the Famine:
Enough food is grown in Kenya to feed all 33 million people.
20 000 cattle were taken to the neighbouring country of Uganda by 3000 farmers in 2006 as the
dry drought affected land had no nutritious grass to feed them with.…read more

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Scale of Obesity and Consequences:
Case Study: America
100 million people are overweight.
More than 60% of them are adults.
Since 1980 the amount of obesity has doubled.
Twice as many children are now obese.
Mississippi classed the fattest state as 1 in 4 people are overweight.
Obesity is the second highest cause of death after smoking. 400 000 thousands deaths
MacDonald's: 30 000 branches in over 100 countries. In 6 continents 46 million people are
served each day on average.…read more

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Key Question 1.2: What factors promote or hinder food production?
Physical ­ e.g. Relief and Fertility of Soil.
Economic ­ e.g. .Equipment and Price of Seeds.
Political ­ e.g. Farming Methods.
Technological ­ e.g. EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)
Malthus's Theory on Food Production over time.
He argued that food shortages, in particular, were
inevitable as population grew because population
could grow geometrically (build upon itself: 2, 4,
8, 16...) whereas food production could grow only
arithmetically (2, 3, 4, 5...).…read more

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Factors that affect farming decisions, especially what type of farm they will be.
Economic Factors that Hinder or Promote Food Production:
Supermarkets and how they hinder food production. 4 Large Supermarkets control 80% of food
Large supermarkets put in orders at British farms; with this business comes a large commitment
borne primarily on the farmer.…read more

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Technological Factors that are enforced to promote food production.
Case Study: Kedah State, Malaysia.
Malaysia is a developing country with majority of the rural population working as farmers on rice
paddies. This was due to the farming techniques being changed from Peasant Subsistence agriculture
to Peasant commercial agriculture. The changes have involved:
The use of more productive and faster maturing rice seeds and thus allowing two crops a year
rather than one.
Planting rice directly into the padi rather than transplanting seedlings.…read more

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Political Factors affecting Food Production:
Pre 1949 food industry > Most of the farming was done manually and so it was mainly labour
intensive and not capital intensive. Cultivation was manual through the use of oxen.
Land was arable and so crops were mainly grown there with livestock restricted.
Peoples Communes, 1958
After taking power in 1958 the communist took land from the richer and divided it and gave it to the
poorer.…read more

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Was introduced in 1963 to achieve the following goals:
To increase agricultural productivity
To insure a fair standard of living for those employed in agriculture.
Stabilise agricultural markets
Guarantee regular supply
To ensure that food supplies are available to consumers at a reasonable price.
How did the CAP work?
1. Increased agricultural productivity via investment grants which were spent on equipment.
These grants encouraged mechanisation & Intensification > increasing use of fertilisers and
pesticides.…read more

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CAP reform 2003:
In 2003 decoupling was introduced, this is where the link between subsidies and production
was broken, this was by providing subsidies by the amount of land a farmer has rather than
what they produce and so they would supply for demand and not over supply.
The World Trade Organisation's Criticism of the CAP:
LIC's food economy was undermined as they were denied access to the EU food market and
the dumping of excess produce.…read more

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Management: Crop Rotation: Rotation of type of crop grown on one piece of land and so the same
minerals aren't consistently being drawn from the soil.
Key Question 1.3: Can Food production be increased sustainably?
Hydroponics and Aeroponics, The Blue Revolution, Genetic Modification, The Second Green
Hydroponics & Aeroponics:
Hydroponics and Aeroponics both allow the cultivation of crops without the use of soil.…read more


Former Member

cheers mate, this is amazing


These are great notes, thank you!!

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