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START Design where participants only take part
in one level of the IV.
Independent measures Design where participants take part in all
design the levels of the IV.
Repeated measures Design where participants only take part
design in one level of the IV but are matched on
relevant variables.

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Questionnaire A scale used to represent people's
attitudes to a topic.
Likert scales A question designed to encourage a full,
meaningful answer using the subject's
own knowledge and/or feelings.
Open questions A question which encourages a short or
singleword answer.
Closed questions An interview which is presented with
exactly the…

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Structured observation An observation where observers do not
have a set list of behaviours that they are
looking for.
Unstructured observation Data collected at every occurrence of a
Event sampling Data recorded at a set time e.g. every 30
Time sampling A piece of research conducted on one…

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Interrater reliability Refers to whether a scale or test
measures the construct adequately.
Construct validity Refers to the consistency of a research
study or measuring test.
Reliability Refers to the extent to which a measure
varies from one use to another.
External reliability Refers to the extent to which a…


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