First and Second Moroccan Crisis

Notes that I made for edexcel History, Germany from 1900-1945

Its about the first Moroccan Crisis of 1905 and the second Moroccan crisis 1911

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The first Moroccan Crisis 1905-1906
In March 1905, Kaiser Wilhelm arrives in Tangier, Morocco to declare his support for the
sultan, provoking the anger of France and Britain.
The Kaiser did not have any substantive interest in Morocco. The central purpose of his
appearance was to disrupt the Anglo-French Entente, formed in April 1904. The Entente
Cordiale was originally intended not as an alliance against Germany but as a settlement of
long-standing imperialist rivalries between Britain and France in North Africa.
By its terms, Britain could pursue its interests in Egypt, while France was free to expand
westward from Algeria into Morocco, the last territory that remained independent in the
region. France subsequently signed an agreement with Spain dividing Morocco into spheres
of influence, with France receiving the greater part.
Germany was angered by its exclusion from the decision made about North Africa. It now
saw that the friendship between two of Europe's most powerful nations threatened them
and thus also posed a challenge to Germany's own influence in Europe and the world.
Although Germany had intended aggressive action in Morocco to place a wedge between
France and Britain, it in fact had the opposite effect, strengthening the bond between the
two countries due to their mutual suspicion of Germany.
What began as mere friendship turned, after the First Moroccan Crisis, into a type of informal
military alliance, including conversations between the British and French governments and
military staffs and later, a mutual defence agreement with a third country, Russia.
Due to Kaiser's appearance, an international conference convened in Algeciras, Spain, in
January 1906 to conclude an agreement about Morocco. The resulting convention awarded
France a controlling interest in Moroccan affairs (Morocco was confirmed in the French
sphere and the entente was strengthened), but guaranteed equality of trade and economic
freedom for every nation and limited any colonial action by any nation without consultation
with the other signatories.
Second Moroccon Crisis of 1911
A Second Moroccan Crisis flared in April 1911, when the French pushed troops into the
country, claiming to be defending the sultan against riots that had erupted in Fez but actually
violating the terms of the Algeciras convention. In response, Germany sent its own warship,
the Panther, which arrived in the port of Agadir on May 21, intensifying the enmity between
the two nations and, by extension, their allies.
Slightly more than two years before the outbreak of World War I, then, the two Moroccan
crises left no doubt that the traditional power balance in Europe had shifted into large blocs
of power, with Germany relatively isolated on one side--enjoying only lukewarm support
from Austria-Hungary and Italy--and Britain, France, and Russia on the other.
Tensions mount
German foreign policy was based on an understanding that:
Britain and France in Africa
Britain and Russia in Asia


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