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The Chemicals of Life Fats
Fats are made of glycerol and fatty acids
Contain 3 types of atoms: carbon hydrogen and oxygen
Fatty acids and glycerol are each molecules. Every one glycerol has 3 long molecules of fatty acids
Also known as a lipid and is broken down by lipase
Fats are insoluble in water and when liquid at room temp they are called oils.
Fats are Good Storage products
1g of fat 39Kj of energy ( twice as much energy released by a carbohydrate)
Energy from fat is only used once all the energy from carbohydrates is used up. Meanwhile the fats
energy is stored.
The fat is stored in cells underneath the skin. This layer of cells is called adipose tissue.
Adipose tissue also keeps you warm by insulating the body.
Animals that live in cold conditions have a very thick layer of adipose tissue which is called blubber.
Plants like get a store of energy for germination because the seeds store oils such as peanuts coconuts
and castor oil.
Fats are in food from plants
You know that plants make carbohydrates. Sometimes they use it as fats.
Foods that contain fat: Meat Chips
The Chemicals of Life Protein
Proteins are long chains of amino acids
As well as containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen they also contain small amounts of nitrogen and
Like polysaccharides protein molecules are made of smaller molecules joined end on end.
The smaller molecules are called amino acids ( pepsin, In the stomach, and protease, in the small
intestine, break down proteins to amino acids)
There are 20 types of amino acids which can be joined in any order to make different types of proteins
Some proteins are soluble in H2O, such as haemoglobin, others aren't, such as keratin ( present in hair
Proteins are used for Growth and Repair
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Not usually normally used for energy but for repairing and making cells
Cell membranes and cytoplasm contain a lot of protein
Needed to make anti bodies which fight bacteria and viruses
Enzymes are made from proteins
Plants and animal foods are good sources of Protein
Plants use some of their carbs to make proteins. But they need ammonium or nitrate ions which
combine with the carbs to make amino acids.…read more
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Plants store carbohydrates as starch.…read more