FAMILIES AND THE HOUSEHOLDS, all my notes!

Includes everything, from The Family to Childhood including all the perspectives.

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What is the role of the family?
MARXISM
Present day Britain society is a capitalist society. One in which industry and
business is in private hands. Main value is in capitalist society is the
accumulation of individual private wealth.
In a capitalist society the dominant social class is the BOURGEOISIE, which
owns the means of production and is consequently able to exercise economic
and political power.
Other social class is the PROLETARIAT
Relies on selling its labour to BOURGEOISIE.
Aim of the BOURGEOISIE is the pursuit of profit. Profit can be achieved by
lowering costs such as wages.
The proletariat strives to improve wages, which is its only means of survival.
The bourgeoisie and the proletariat are therefore locked in conflict. Marx
believed that such conflict would result in over throw of capitalism.
During the 20th century, Marxists have tried to explain the survival of the
bourgeoisie and capitalism. They claim that the bourgeoisie has been able to
use the various institutions in society to maintain and justify capitalism.
Marxists analysis in sociology involves examining how social institutions such
as the family help to maintain and justify capitalism.
IDEOLOGY
An ideology is a set of ideas designed to justify a particular situation.
Marxists argue that the bourgeoisie use ideology to justify capitalism.
A key argument is that the family transmits the values of capitalism from one
generation to the next.
MARXIST AND THE FAMILY
COOPER
Argues that the family is an `ideological conditioning device' because it
transmits the values of capitalism from one generation to the next. For
example, it teaches children to be materialistic and to accept authority.
ZARETSKY
The family reproduces the next generation of workers and consumers whom
ensures continuing profit for the bourgeoisie ­ maintenance.

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EVALUATION
Marxism provides a useful alternative to the idealism of functionalism.
Like functionalism, it assumes a traditional division of labour that now looks
rather dated.
The Marxist dichotomous (two fold) model of class doesn't allow for
consideration of differences between middle class and working class family life.
The emphasis on class ignores ethic variations on the family and assumes the
family is nuclear.
FEMISISTS VIEWS ON THE FAMILY
Patriarchy refers to male dominance with men having power and authority.…read more

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MARXIST FEMINISM
Type of feminism
What is seen as the main cause of oppression?
They argue that the main cause of oppression isn't men but capitalism:
Women reproduce the labour force
Women absorb anger
Women are a `reserve army' of cheap labour
What needs to happen in order to remove this oppression?
They argue the family must be abolished at the same time as a socialist
revolution.…read more

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Strong support for the traditional
family
In Britain, conservative party was
influences by the right wing
perspective.
RISE
Until the 1980's British politics, while not left wing, was influenced by the key
left wing ideas.
Such as support for the welfare state, the redistribution of wealth and income
and the belief the state should exercise responsibility to care for the sick, the
elderly and the poor.
With the election of Margaret 1979, right wing ideas came to the fore, hence
the term the NEW RIGHT.…read more

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Reinforce the male breadwinner role
Make divorce more difficult
Restrict abortion
Less promotion of homo sexuality
Give less status to cohabitation
New Right views on the decline of the family?
Recent years have been a growing concern about the state of the family ­
`decline'. This view of the family was put forward by New Right thinkers.
Evidence they point to the following evidence to support their claims.…read more

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Value judgements
The New Right see the nuclear family consisting a husband, wife and children
as the ideal.
Others are considered inferior.
Critics argue this reflects the values of New Right rather than balancing
judgements of the worth of family diversity in today's society.
Idealised view of the past
New Right thinkers may be harking back to the golden age of the family which
never existed.…read more

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Objectivity, truth, hierarchies of knowledge, the significance of the
social/behavioural sciences, the power structures of society, the nature of the
self, sovereignty in political theory, justice, the stultifying dictatorship of
contemporary social norms.
According to Foucault, the process of normalisation, or adherence to social
norms, is internalised in us through the mechanisms of disciplinary power.
"What characteristics the living body is its ability to instigate norms, and
norms are founded on the experience of the lived body.…read more

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According to PARSONS industrialisation bought the nuclear family. However,
YOUNG and WILMOTT argue that the hard-ship of early industrial society
gave rise to the mum-centred working class extended family, based on ties
between mothers and their married daughters, who relied on each other for
financial and emotional support.
ANDERSONS study of mid 19th century Preston uses exchange theory (the
idea that individuals break off or maintain family ties because of the costs or
benefits involved) to explain the popularity of the working-class extended
family.…read more

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Functions of the family after industrialisation?
Parsons argued the industrial revolution brought about four changes in the
family.
Historians challenge Parsons
They suggest that Parsons was too far simplistic in his interpretation of the
history of the family
They point out evidence suggests that individualisation may follow different
patterns indifferent industrial societies.…read more

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THE FAMILY MORALITY AND STATE POLICY
Family ideology...
Is the view that a particular type of family e.g. nuclear, and particular living
arrangements. E.g. marriage, men as breadwinners, women as housewives are
the ideas that the people should aspire too.
Ideology is transmitted through the media, politicians, religious leaders and
pressure groups.
THE GOLDEN AGE OF FAMILY LIFE
Those who claim the family are in decline can be labelled as the `New Right'.…read more

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