Families and Households

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  • Created on: 27-04-13 12:31
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Families and households:
Topic1: Couples
Parsons: women and men play expressive and instrumental roles based on their biological
Young and Willmott: symmetrical family, husband and wives so the same/ similar jobs
Younger couples have an even more symmetrical family
Anne Oakley: women who work still do a lot of housework, not much has changed
Gershuny: optimistic, jobs are done more equally.
BUT it isn't exactly like that
Hilary Silver: housework is now commercialised and easier to do.
BUT it is not abolished
Elisa Ferri & Kate Smith: women do a dual burden of paid work, and housework
Allie Hochchild: women do another shift of emotional work, a triple shift]#
Gillian Dunne: homosexuals follow gender scripts. Lesbians share housework etc. more
Within the household, men often make the most important decisions (like moving house, buying a
new car) often because they earn more.
Domestic Violence:
Domestic violence often follows specific social patterns
It is most often done by men
It's hard to produce official statistics because many women are afraid to report it
Police are often reluctant to get involved in family affairs
Radical feminists: use it to show that relationships are patriarchal, and society is based on
Topic2: Childhood
Childhood is socially constructed. Childhood is different in different societies
Jane Pilcher: there should be a clear difference between adulthood and childhood
Stephen Wagg: childhood is socially constructed depending on the time, place and culture of
your surrounding
Phippe Aries: in the middle ages, children were seen as `mini' adults'
Ruth Benedict: children in non-industrial areas have more responsibilities
Postman: childhood is slowly disappearing

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Edward Shorter: the reasons for adults treating children badly in the middle ages was
because infant mortality was high and children were expected to die, so they were not
Palmer: technology and media is altering children's physical and intellectual ideas
Margo and Dixon: having a negative childhood leads to teenagers harming their selves
Topic3: The Functions of the Family
Functionalists believe that society is based on value consensus, the idea that society works
by everyone sharing the same morals and shared norms and values…read more

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Topic4: Demography
Birth Rate: number of live births per 1000 of the population per year
Infant Mortality Rate: number of children who die before their first birthday per 1000 of the
population per year
Death Rate: the number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year
Birth rate is going down:
The position of women have changed, women can now choose to further their education
of job rather than having a child
There's a decline in infant mortality, people don't need to have children…read more

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Net migration: the difference between immigration and emigration
Immigration into the UK has increased, creating a more diverse society
Reasons for emigration:
Usually economic reasons
Sometimes towards a better climate
There has been an increase in both immigration and emigration
In 2004, there was net migration of 223.…read more

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Tamara Havery: there is flexibility because families can choose and make their own decisions
Claire Holdsworth and David Morgan: examined how young people experience leaving home
Focuses on what family member consider important
Suitable for studying families in today's society, where there is more choice
David Morgan: family practises are influenced by beliefs on rights and obligations within the
David Chear: we no longer live in the `modern world' society has entered a chaotic
postmodern stage
Anthony Giddesn: family and mariiages have been transformed…read more

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People are marrying later
People aren't getting married in churches
Fewer people are marrying
Marriage is only a piece of paper. It doesn't mean anything
Secularisation: people see marriage as religious
Declining stigma towards alternatives (cohabitation, being single etc.…read more

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Immigration has made Britain much more diverse
Tracey Reynolds: statistics are misleading, just because long parent families are high
doesn't mean that they don't being up stable and supportive societies
Asian Families are usually larger
Some households hold 3 generations, but they are nuclear rather than extended
When migrating, they bring their whole family for support
Black Caribbean and African have a big percentage of lone parent families
can be traced back to slavery times where the children stayed with the mothers
high rates of…read more

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Marxists don't have the march of progress view
Donzelot: high authorities (police, social workers etc.) control families by telling them
how they should look after their family
Gender Regimes: certain things that different genders do
Familistic Gender Regimes: follows the idea that the male should play the instrumental
role.…read more


Jazz M

Great resource, thanks! Just listing the key sociologist and their ideas is really helpful :)


Fantastic! Thank you :)

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