Factors affecting population change

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Global issues population and resources revision
Factors affecting population change
Decreasing death rates and infant mortality lead to higher population
growth rates as less people die and so the birth rate will fall as fewer
children will be needed to compensate for the losses.
The time between death rate and birth rate falling will affect the rate of
population change. A longer time will mean the population grows quicker.
Also countries that developed better healthcare and living standards early
on in history took longer for their natural increase to decrease and
stabilise. Now countries such as those in South America are taking a
shorter amount of time to stabilise their natural increase as those
advancements are already in place and well practised throughout the world.
Political factors
Thailand had a fertility rate of 6.5 in 1969 and the government were
worried that it would take too long for the natural increase to decrease
naturally to the desired stage in the DTM. The fertility rate was high as
only 16% of the population used contraception, most of the economy was
agricultural so large families were needed. This could have led to a lack of
resources for the growing population. In 1970, the national family planning
program was introduced which used strategies such as:
- Public information programs such as radio and billboard adverts
which emphasised the benefits of a 2 child family and raised
awareness of contraception.
- Health centres provided free contraception and trained health
workers and midwives. As healthcare improved, more children
survived and so larger families were not needed.
By 1989 72% of the population used contraception and fertility rates fell to 1.7
and population growth slowed from 3% to 0.8%. Thailand is now in stage 3 of the
China's one child policy: the policy meant that couples were only allowed one
child in order to slow birth rates and reduce the natural increase. There
were fines and punishments for those who disobeyed the rule and rewards
for those who obeyed such as a 10% pay rise and free education, healthcare
and childcare. This did reduce the country's growth rate but led to
problems such as a gender imbalance as most couples preferred boys to
girls. Also the policy made it hard for rural families who needed large
families as a labour force. The policy has since relaxed allowing couples 2
children and rural families' larger families.

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Global issues population and resources revision
Immigration into the UK from Eastern Europe: 61,000 migrants have
entered the UK since 2003 each year and this has raised the working
population of the UK providing taxes and more labour. However it has put
pressure on the availability of jobs for local people and extra pressure on
services such as education and healthcare.
Social factors
Culture and religion: some cultures and religions ban the use of
contraception meaning fertility rates are high.…read more


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