factors affecting population change

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Factors affecting population change
Demographic factors
Decreasing death rates and infant mortality lead to a higher population
growth rate as less people die but also because if fewer children die then
the birth rate will also decrease as fewer children are needed to
compensate for the losses.
The time between death rate and birth rate falling will affect the rate of
population change. A longer time will mean the population grows quicker.
Also countries that developed better health care and living standards, early
on in history such as those in Europe, took longer for their natural increase
rate to decrease and stabilise as these advancements in medicine were still
developing themselves. Now countries such as those in South America are
taking a shorter amount of time for their natural increase rate to fall and
stabilise as those advancements are already in place and well practised
throughout the world.
Political factors
Thailand- had a fertility rate of 6.5 children per women in 1969 and the
government were worried that it would take decades for this to naturally
decrease to the desired stage in the DTM. The fertility rate was high as
only 16% of the population used contraception; most of the economy was
based on agriculture so large families were needed for farm work. This
could cause problems with a lack of infrastructure to support the growing
population and a lack of quality food supply. So, in 1970, the national
family planning program was introduced. It used strategies such as:
Public information programs such as radio, and billboard adverts
which emphasised the benefits of a two child family, and raised
awareness of contraception.
Health centres provided to provide free contraception and to train
health workers and midwives. As healthcare improved more children
survived infancy.
By 1989 72% of the population were using contraception and fertility rates
dropped to 1.7, and population growth was 0.8% a year, a significant improvement
on the population growth in the 1960's of 3%. Now Thailand is in stage 4 of the
DTM and its transition from stage 3 took less than 30 years. Its population was
predicted to reach 64 million by 1989; back in the 1960's but instead reached 51
million. However this could cause problems in the future as Thailand's fertility
rate is below the replacement rate of 2.1 it could mean that Thailand's workforce

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UK.
China's one child policy: China in the 1980's was comparing its economy to
that of developed nations, and felt that they couldn't improve with the rate
of population growth and the population size they currently had. The policy
involved families only being allowed to have one child. If they didn't they
were not entitled to the benefits of one child such as free healthcare and
education and subsidised childcare. They also had a 10% pay cut and had to
pay large fines.…read more

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Economic factors
In less developed countries children are seen as an economic asset as they
are needed for working such as in factories or as farm labour. As a country
economically develops it will need fewer children as labour, and will be able
to spend more on health care, housing, education and nutrition, which will
lower death rates and therefore lead to a lower rate of population change.…read more

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