First 484 words of the document:
Name Procedure Findings Evaluation
(Lab exp, young adults [17-25], older · YA's info more accurate. - Artificial.
Karpel et el. Age & adults [65-85]) · YA's less vulnerable to
(2001) EWT · P's shown video of robbery. leading questions.
· P's asked to recall what they'd seen.
Valentine & (children, YA, older adults) · Elderly & kids most - Lacks external
Coxon · Watched video of robbery. susceptible to LQs. Children validity.
(1997) · Asked non/leading q's. more so. - Artificial.
(middle-aged, elderly) · Elderly more susceptible to - Artificial.
· Showed film of kidnapping. misleading info. - P variables.
· P's read a true narrative/ narrative with
(children) · <5 more likely to be - Not real event,
· P's pick culprit from line up. incorrect. no
· Older children as good as consequentiality,
adults in picking culprit (if no emotional
· If not present, kids more
likely to make a choice than
· P's hear conversations while sitting · When p's given 50 photos - Artificial.
outside lab. and asked to identify man, - P variables.
· One condition heard friendly discussion those who saw peaceful scene - Demand
on equipment failure. Man left, holding a were more accurate. characteristics.
Loftus Anxiety &
pen. - Ethical issues.
· Other condition they heard hostile - Poor pop
discussion, breaking glass, & overturned validity.
furniture. Man left holding blood covered - Loftus effect.
Loftus & (266 uni students, lab exp.) · Those who saw violent
Burns · Showed p's film, 1 group saw violent incident recalled significantly
(1982) incudent (boy shot in face). less.
Christianso · Surveyed 110 people who'd seen 22 · Victims with greatest anxiety + Genuine.
n& genuine bank robberies between them. remembered most! - Extraneous
Hubinette · Some had been bystanders others had variables.
(1993) been threatened.
(lab exp, 150 p's.) · Smashed = 41mph. - Artificial.
· P's shown accident between two cars & · Contacted = 32mph. - Demand
Loftus & Misleading
filled in questionnaire about it. · Recall can be distorted by characteristics.
Palmer Info &
· Only 1 q different: "How fast were the wording of a q. - Loftus effect.
two cars going when they hit / smashed /
collided / bumped / contacted?"
Loftus & · Showed p's video of car accident. · The = 17%. - Artificial.
Zanni · Asked if people saw a/the broken · A = 7%.
· 13 people witnessed genuine armed · Misleading q's didn't affect + Genuine.
robbery in Canada. recall. - Extraneous
· 4 months later, p's asked misleading · Few facts made up/distorted. variables.