F451 Computing Terminology Sheet

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  • Created by: Jonathan
  • Created on: 10-04-12 13:05
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Section 1
Components of a Computer
Hardware Anything that you can physically touch
Software Programs / information that runs on the hardware
Input Device A device that puts information in to the system
Storage Device A device that stores data on the system
Output device A device that displays data that is on the system
Peripheral A piece of hardware that is outside the computer
Systems Software Software specifically designed to run on the hardware
Applications Software Software that is designed to run on top of the operating system
Section 2
Systems Software
Systems Development Life Cycle
Systems Life Cycle Is the process of creating a system which involves the following steps
Feasibility Is the solution possible? Economical to produce/run? Ect.
Analysis This defines the problem that needs to be solved
Design Working out the best method for solving the problem
Implementation Is the process of creating the system and putting it in to the work place. There are a couple of types, direct, parallel
and pilot conversion
Maintenance This is the process of keeping the system running smoothly, ironing out glitches and adapting it if the problem
Deliverable This is the final system that is produced given to the client
Waterfall method One step followed by the next step, followed by the next flowing into the next
Spiral method Rapid prototyping followed by extensive maintenance to make it suit the problem
Prototype An early example of the product
Requirements Specification What it needs to do
DFD Data flow diagram

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System Flowchart A way of representing data flow around the system
Data Dictionary A list of every piece of data that is stored in the system
Dry run testing Walking through the process ignoring existing flaws
Unit testing Testing small sections of the program to make sure it function properly
Integration testing The process of bring all the modules together and testing them together
System testing Testing everything on the complete product
Acceptance testing These are automated tests written by the customer to…read more

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Form driven interface Standard type as input, tabulated, asks questions
Menu driven interface Used when the operator does not know the options available, tend to be simple
WIMP Windows, icons, menus, pointer
Utilities Tools
Utility software Software that helps run and maintain the OS
Hardware driver Something that translates so the computer can communicate with the hardware e.g. printer
Processor Components
Control Unit It decides which instructions to carry out next and then go and get them.…read more

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Cache memory A special buffer storage, smaller and faster than main storage, that is used to hold a copy of instructions and data in
main storage that are likely to be needed next by the processor.
Buffer Some memory that stores instructions for the CPU
Interrupt An instruction that says the buffer is full or needs filling
Verification This is to check that the data is correct, i.e. visual, double entry
Validation This insures that the data is reasonable (format etc.…read more

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Check sum A calculation performed on data which gives a check digit which is compared to other digit
Packet switching Sending packets down the quickest route at the time and reassembling them at the other end
Circuit switching Sending all data in order down same route
Protocols for data transmission Hand shake protocol
Physical protocol Instructions on what to do with the data
Logical protocol Wires and stuff
Data Protection Act ­ name the 8 The act contains eight "Data Protection Principles".…read more


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