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Chemistry F332 Notes

Ions in solids and solutions:

Structure of an ionic lattice (Sodium Chloride):

Consists of sodium ions (Na+) surrounded by six chloride ions (Cl-)
Chloride ions also surrounded by six sodium ions.
Held together by attraction of oppositely charged ions.
Giant ionic lattice.
Electrostatic bonds hold lattices together.…

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One mole of gaseous ions with one positive charge is formed: X(g) X+(g) + e-
The value of this is always positive.
Energy must be put in to remove electron which is attracted to the nucleus.
Largest enthalpies are noble gases, they have a full outer shell and all very…

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Soluble in organic solvents.
Most reactive out of the halogens.
Displaces chlorine, bromine and iodine.
Benefits: used to make PTFE, in toothpastes to strengthen enamel, used to make HCFC's.
Risks: highly reactive and so handling must be kept to a minimum.
When needed for reactions it is made in situ…

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Reactions of halogens with halides:

1. Chlorine water, potassium bromide and cyclohexane ­

2. Chlorine water, potassium iodide and cyclohexane -

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3. Bromine water, potassium iodide and cyclohexane ­

The 3 above reactions take place as a halogen higher up in group 7 can displace one lower down.

Reactions of halide ions with silver ions:

1. Potassium chloride with silver nitrate ­

2. Potassium bromide and silver nitrate ­

3. Potassium…

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· An example of electrolysis:
· If we place aqueous sodium chloride into the electrolysis cell and allow current to
flow, the following reactions occur at the electrodes:
· At the cathode: Reduction
· 2H+(aq) + 2e H2(aq)
· At the anode: Oxidation
· 2Cl2 Cl2(g) +…

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Polar molecules:

· A dipole occurs when a molecule has a positive and negative end.
· When a molecule has a dipole we say that it is polarised.
· Polar molecules have a permanent dipole.

Temporary or Instantaneous dipoles:

· The electron density is unevenly distributed.
· Instantaneous dipole.

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Physical Properties:

· Boiling points increases with heavier halogen.
· Same with increasing number of halogen atoms.
· This is due to overall number of electrons increasing.
· Increases Id-Id bonds.
· Stronger intermolecular bonds = more energy needed to pull molecules apart.

Bond enthalpies:

· The C-Hal bond gets…

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· Five stages;
· Upper layer containing Chloroalkane is run off into clean beaker.
· Chloroalkane is shaken with sodium hydrogencarbonate to remove acidic impurities.
· Chloroalkane layer is run off again.
· Anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to remove any water (a drying agent).
· Chloroalkane is then purified…

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· Also energy, so any heat which could be made during an exothermic reaction is converted
using a heat exchanger into hot water or steam.

Plant location:

· Good transport network; sea terminal and good rail and road links are in important to
bring in raw materials and distribution of…


Emma Anderson8


I was Just wondering if the chemistry notes are for ocr salters chemistry B? :)

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