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Transition Elements
Typical Properties of transition elements
Variable oxidation states
The transition elements all exhibit two or more oxidation states in their compounds,
e.g. Iron: Fe2+ and Fe3+, chromium: Cr3+ and Cr7+
The ionisation energies of the transition elements are similar, with reasonably low
values. All the transition metals can…

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Ligands and the formation of complex ions
The lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom of a water molecule are attracted
strongly to the positive ions in the ionic lattice and bind with them firmly enough to
allow the breakdown of the lattice to occur. This can happen with…

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An octahedral complex has coordination number 6, square planar and tetrahedral
complexes have coordination number 4.

Monodentate and bidentate ligands
All the examples so far have involved monodentate ligands. These ligands have a
single point of attachment to the central cation. It is possible to have ligands that
attach at…

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Isomerism of complex ions
The square planar structure of Ni(NH3)2Cl2 shows cis-trans isomerism.
Trans form ­ ammonia molecules and chloride ions are on opposite sides of the
complex ion
Cis form ­ ammonia and chloride ions are alongside each other

Optical isomerism is also possible in complexes coordinated with polydentate…

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the mixture of CuCl42- with a little [Cu(H2O)6]2+, the mixture becomes progressives
more blue as the chloride ions of the [CuCl4]2- are substituted by H2O until blue
[Cu(H2O)6]2+ ions predominate.

Cobalt chloride exists as Co2+[CoCl4]2- in the anhydrous state. [CoCl4]2- is blue, but the
addition of water results in the…

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2) Silver ions form a soluble complex ion with two ammonia ligands, [Ag(NH3)2]+. This
complex ion is formed when excess aqueous ammonia is added to a precipitate of
silver chloride. It does not form if excess aqueous ammonia is added to a precipitate
of silver iodide. It is a useful…


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