F322 Chemistry Notes

Notes on Organic Chemistry, Alcohols and Enthalpy

Topics that haven't been covered are

- Sigma and pi bonds

- Feedstock and recycling

- Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry

- Section on green chemistry (ozone, global warming, etc.) 

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  • Created by: Sanchia
  • Created on: 21-05-12 12:22
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Organic Chemistry
Aliphatic - chains
Aromatic - rings
Saturated - all bonds are used - single bonds
Unsaturated - not all bonds are used - double bonds
Alkanes are the simplest hydrocarbons - used for fuels
Similar chemical properties, different physical properties
Homologous series series of organic compounds with the same functional group but with each
successive member differing by CnHn+2
Functional group is a part of the molecule responsible for its chemical properties
Locant number number of the carbon on to which a group is attached - lowest outcome, alphabetic
Molecular how many atoms of each element in the molecule
Displayed shows all atoms and bonds
Structural written description of the molecule
Skeletal only shows bonds between carbons
Stereoisomerism molecules with double bonds, each carbon must be attached to 2 different groups -
double bonds do not rotate
E apart trans
Z together cis
Fractional distillations the separation of the components in a liquid mixture into fractions which differ
in boiling points
Short chains - low boiling point
Few points of contact, few van der Waal forces, less energy needed
Long chains - high boiling points
More points of contact, more van der Waal forces, more energy needed
More branches - low boiling point
Chains do not pack together, low van der Waal forces, less energy needed
Few branches - high boiling point
Chains pack together, high van der Waal forces, more energy needed
Electrophilic addition of Alkenes - Hydrogenation

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Unsaturated > Saturated
Cracking alkanes produces a smaller chain alkane and alkene
Isomerisation turns unbranched alkanes into branched alkanes
Reforming aliphatic hydrocarbons can be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons
Free radical substitution of Alkanes
UV light splits bonds - homolytic
Formation of free radicals
CH4 + ·Cl > ·CH3 + HCl
·CH3 + Cl2 > CH3Cl + ·Cl
·Cl + ·Cl > Cl2
·CH3 + ·CH3 > C2H6
·Cl + ·CH3 > CH3Cl
Polymerisation High pressure, High temperature, Catalyst
PVC poly-chloro-ethene
Telefon poly-tetra-flouro-ethene…read more

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Primary alcohol oxidises to Aldehyde oxidises to Carboxylic acid
Butan-1-ol > Butanal > Butanoic acid
Secondary alcohol oxidises to Ketone
Butan-1-ol > Butanone
Tertiary alcohol does not oxidise
K2Cr2O7 (acidified potassium dichromate) orange > green
Esterification carboxylic acid + alcohol > ester + water
Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis
Bond enthalpy
Percentage yield
Actual amount of product x 100
Theoretical amount of product
Atom economy
Molecular mass of the desired product x 100
Sum of molecular masses of all product
Exothermic (-)…read more

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Standard Enthalpy of formation enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its
elements under the standard conditions
Standard Enthalpy of combustion enthalpy change when one mole of an element or compound reacts
completely with oxygen under standard conditions
Hess' law if a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are
the same, the total enthalpy change is the same for each route
Rate of reaction the change in concentration of a reactant or…read more


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