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F322
Organic Chemistry

Aliphatic - chains
Aromatic - rings
Saturated - all bonds are used - single bonds
Unsaturated - not all bonds are used - double bonds

Alkanes are the simplest hydrocarbons - used for fuels
Similar chemical properties, different physical properties
Homologous series series of organic compounds with…

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Unsaturated > Saturated

Cracking alkanes produces a smaller chain alkane and alkene
Isomerisation turns unbranched alkanes into branched alkanes
Reforming aliphatic hydrocarbons can be converted into aromatic hydrocarbons

Free radical substitution of Alkanes
Initiation
UV light splits bonds - homolytic
Formation of free radicals
Propagation
CH4 + ·Cl > ·CH3…

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Primary alcohol oxidises to Aldehyde oxidises to Carboxylic acid
Butan-1-ol > Butanal > Butanoic acid
Secondary alcohol oxidises to Ketone
Butan-1-ol > Butanone
Tertiary alcohol does not oxidise
K2Cr2O7 (acidified potassium dichromate) orange > green

Esterification carboxylic acid + alcohol > ester + water

Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis…

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Standard Enthalpy of formation enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its
elements under the standard conditions

Standard Enthalpy of combustion enthalpy change when one mole of an element or compound reacts
completely with oxygen under standard conditions

Hess' law if a reaction can take place…

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