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Homologous series is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group and similar
chemical properties, but with each successive member differing by CnH2n+2
Functional group is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical properties and
Hydrocarbon is a compound containing carbon and…

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Homolytic fission is the breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each
atom forming two radicals.
Heterolytic fission is the breaking of a covalent bond, with both of the bonded electrons going to one
of the atoms, forming a cation and an anion.

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Unbranched alkanes are converted into branched alkanes, as they are also better fuels and promote
efficient combustion.

Aliphatic hydrocarbons are converted into cyclic or aromatic hydrocarbons plus hydrogen; cyclic alkanes
are better fuels as they promote efficient combustion. The hydrogen is used in other processes.

Crude Oils for fuels…

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Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one C=C double bond. Aliphatic hydrocarbons have a
general formula of CnH2n. They are more reactive that alkanes and can form E/Z isomers.

The double bond
The double bond of an alkane is made up of a sigma, bond and a pi, bond.…

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Conditions: H3PO4 at 300oC, 60 atmospheres

Electrophilic addition
Bond fission: Heterolytic fission
Curly arrow shows the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
The electron pair in the bond is attracted to the positive dipole, breaking the double bond.
A bond is…

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Poly(propene)/polypropylene Food packaging, dishwasher safe containers, carpet fibres,
synthetic ropes, laboratory equipment.

Poly(ethene)/polythene Grocery bags, shampoo bottles, toys etc. (most widely used

Polyvinylchloride/PVC Medical tubing, cable insulation and drainpipes

Addition polymers don't react with substances inside them, are durable and non-biodegradable.

Polymer waste
Polymers are non-biodegradable so fill up…

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Uses of alcohols
Ethanol in alcoholic drinks
Fermentation is used to produce ethanol used in alcoholic drinks and barley, water and hops
(flavour/prevention of bacteria activity) are combined with yeast to produced beers and lagers. Spirits
have higher alcohol content and are produced in a distillery, where the fermented drink…

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Secondary alcohols are oxidised by acidified dichromate ions to produce ketones.

Tertiary alcohols
Tertiary alcohols are resistant to oxidation so the oxidising agent remains orange.

Reflux is the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes
place without the content of the flask boiling…

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Halogenoalkanes have been used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, degreasing agents and dry-cleaning
solvents, but they damage the ozone layer. They are also important in organic synthesis and can be used
to prepare many useful materials. They have a general formula of CnH2n+1X.

Halogenoalkanes contain a polar carbon-halogen bond…

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Iodoalkanes react the fastest because they have the lowest bond enthalpy so have weaker
bonds which require less energy to break, even though flouroalkanes are more
Halogenoalkanes and the environment
Halogen-containing polymers
PTFE is made from the polymerisation of tetrofluoroethene and had the trade name Teflon.

C--F bonds are…




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