F322: Chains, Energy and Resources

My revision notes that I made. I hope you might find them useful :)

(All ideas and definitions from Heinemann OCR Chemistry text book)

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  • Created on: 01-01-13 15:14
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Chemistry
General
Homologous series is a series of organic compounds with the same functional group and similar
chemical properties, but with each successive member differing by CnH2n+2
Functional group is the part of the organic molecule responsible for its chemical properties and
reactions.
Hydrocarbon is a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only.
Saturated hydrocarbons contain single bonds only.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain carbon-to-carbon multiple bonds.
Aliphatic hydrocarbons have carbon atoms joined together in straight or branched chains.
Alicyclic hydrocarbons have carbon atoms joined together in a ring structure.
Carbon
Carbon can form so many compounds because:
It can bond with other carbon atoms to form chains and rings
It can form single, double or triple bonds to another carbon atom
It can bond with atoms of other elements
Alkanes
Alkanes are saturated straight-chained hydrocarbons. Each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms
giving it a tetrahedral shape with a bond angle on 109.5o. The general formula is CnH2n+2.
Functional groups
Type of compound Formula Prefix Suffix
Alkane C--C -ane
Alkene C==C -ene
Halegenoalkane -F fluoro-
-Cl chloro-
-Br bromo-
-I iodo-
Alcohol -OH hydroxyl- -ol
Aldehyde -CHO -al
Ketone C--CO--C -one
Carboxylic acid -COOH -oic acid

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Homolytic fission is the breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonded electrons going to each
atom forming two radicals.
Heterolytic fission is the breaking of a covalent bond, with both of the bonded electrons going to one
of the atoms, forming a cation and an anion.
Nucleophile is a species that is attracted to an electron-rich centre or atom, where it donates a pair of
electrons to form a new covalent bond.…read more

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Unbranched alkanes are converted into branched alkanes, as they are also better fuels and promote
efficient combustion.
Reforming
Aliphatic hydrocarbons are converted into cyclic or aromatic hydrocarbons plus hydrogen; cyclic alkanes
are better fuels as they promote efficient combustion. The hydrogen is used in other processes.
Crude Oils for fuels
A good fuel needs to be readily available, easily transported and inexpensive.…read more

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Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one C=C double bond. Aliphatic hydrocarbons have a
general formula of CnH2n. They are more reactive that alkanes and can form E/Z isomers.
The double bond
The double bond of an alkane is made up of a sigma, bond and a pi, bond.
bond is formed directly between two carbon atoms by the overlap of orbitals. Each carbon atom
contributes one electron pair in the bond.…read more

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Hyrdation
Conditions: H3PO4 at 300oC, 60 atmospheres
Electrophilic addition
Bond fission: Heterolytic fission
Curly arrow shows the movement of an electron pair in the breaking or formation of a covalent bond.
The electron pair in the bond is attracted to the positive dipole, breaking the double bond.
A bond is formed between the
carbon and the positive atom.
The halogen bond breaks by
Heterolytic fission forming a
halogen ion and a carbocation.
The positive carbocation reacts
with the halogen ion to form an
organic product.…read more

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Poly(propene)/polypropylene Food packaging, dishwasher safe containers, carpet fibres,
synthetic ropes, laboratory equipment.
Poly(ethene)/polythene Grocery bags, shampoo bottles, toys etc. (most widely used
plastic.
Polyvinylchloride/PVC Medical tubing, cable insulation and drainpipes
Addition polymers don't react with substances inside them, are durable and non-biodegradable.
Polymer waste
Polymers are non-biodegradable so fill up landfills. Much plastic waste contains additives (colorants,
stabilisers and plasticisers) which often contain poisonous heavy metal ions.
Recycling
Sorting: Polymers are sorted before they are processed.…read more

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Uses of alcohols
Ethanol in alcoholic drinks
Fermentation is used to produce ethanol used in alcoholic drinks and barley, water and hops
(flavour/prevention of bacteria activity) are combined with yeast to produced beers and lagers. Spirits
have higher alcohol content and are produced in a distillery, where the fermented drink is distilled by
heating and cooled as alcohol boils faster than water.…read more

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Secondary alcohols are oxidised by acidified dichromate ions to produce ketones.
Tertiary alcohols
Tertiary alcohols are resistant to oxidation so the oxidising agent remains orange.
Reflux is the continual boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture to ensure that the reaction takes
place without the content of the flask boiling dry.
Esterification
Conditions: alcohol mixed with a carboxylic acid, high temperatures, concentrated H2SO4.…read more

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Halogenoalkanes
Halogenoalkanes have been used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, degreasing agents and dry-cleaning
solvents, but they damage the ozone layer. They are also important in organic synthesis and can be used
to prepare many useful materials. They have a general formula of CnH2n+1X.
Reactivity
Halogenoalkanes contain a polar carbon-halogen bond
Halogen atoms are more electronegative and so the bonded electron pair is more attracted toward
the halogen atom resulting in a polar bond.…read more

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Iodoalkanes react the fastest because they have the lowest bond enthalpy so have weaker
bonds which require less energy to break, even though flouroalkanes are more
electronegative.
Halogenoalkanes and the environment
Halogen-containing polymers
PTFE is made from the polymerisation of tetrofluoroethene and had the trade name Teflon.…read more

Comments

ZanZann

this is so good thank you so much

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