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Outline why plants, animals and microorganisms need to respire, with reference to active transport and metabolic
Metabolic processes that need energy include
Active transport- moving ions and molecules across a membrane against a concentration gradient. All
cell membranes have a sodium-potassium pumps and these maintain the resting potential.…

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One ATP molecule is hydrolysed and the phosphate group released is attached to the glucose molecule
at carbon 6
Glucose 6-phosphate is changed to fructose 6-phosphate
Another ATP is hydrolysed and the phosphate group released is attached to fructose 6-phosphate at
carbon 1 which activates the hexose sugar which…

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Some of the electron carriers also have a coenzyme that pumps protons from the matrix to the
intermembrane space using energy released from the passage of electrons

ATP synthase enzymes
Are large and protrude from the inner membrane into the matrix
Are also known as stalked particles
Allow protons…

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The first electron carrier to accept the electrons from reduced NAD is a protein complex called
The protons go into solution in the matrix
Electron transport chain- the electrons are passed along a series of electron carriers and then donated to
molecular oxygen, the final electron acceptor


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Alcoholic fermentation (under anaerobic respiration in yeast cells)
Each pyruvate molecule loses a carbon dioxide molecule; it is decarboxylated and becomes
This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase which has a coenzyme bound to
Ethanal accepts a hydrogen atom from reduced NAD which becomes reoxidised…

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Excess amino acids, released after protein digestion, may be deaminated. This involves removal of the
amine group and its conversion to urea. The rest of the molecule is changed into glycogen or fat which can
be stored and later respired to release energy
When an organism is undergoing fasting,…


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