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Autotrophs: organisms that convert inorganic carbon into organic carbon using light or chemical energy.
Heterotrophs: ingest organic carbon molecules.
Photosynthesis: transfers light energy into the chemical potential energy of organic molecules.

6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6CO2

Large surface area for pigments, electron
carriers and ATP synthase.…

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Light Dependent Stage ­ thylakoid membrane.
Photolysis: 2H2O 4e- + 4H+ + O2
Light energy is absorbed by PSII (chlorophyll a ­ P680nm).
2e- become excited and breaks away from Mg.
2e- is carried to an electron acceptor by increasing energy levels.
2e- is transported to PSI by electron…

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Chemiosmosis: the flow of protons down a proton gradient through channels in ATP synthase, from the thylakoid

space into the stroma.

Light strike PSII and 2e- become excited.
Electrons are accepted by electron carriers and release energy as they move along the electron transport
This causes protons to be…

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Source of carbon and oxygen for the production of large organic molecules, used to make structures and
act as energy stores and sources.

Limiting Factors
Limiting factor: is present at the lowest or least favourable value.
Law of limiting factors: if a process is influences by more than one limiting…

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1. Take small pieces of plant (Elodea) and ensure bubbles are emerging from the cut end. Insert this into the
tube in the photosynthometer.
2. Stand the test tube in a beaker or 20oC water and add a spatula of potassium/sodium hydrogen
3. Place a light source close to…




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