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1 Communication 2 Nerves 1
Cells communicate by cell signalling ­ one cell Sensory receptors (e.g. rods and cones in the retina)
produces a chemical that is detected by another convert one form of energy (e.g. light) into electrical
cell. energy in a nerve impulse.
Cell signalling can…

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9 Excretion 10 Kidney 1
Excretion is the removal from the body of metabolic The cortex is the outer region of the kidney, the
waste (e.g. CO2 from cell respiration or urea from medulla the inner region and the pelvis is in the
excess amino acids). centre which leads into…

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17 Photosynthesis 3 ­ photolysis and 18 Photosynthesis 4 ­ cyclic and non-cyclic
photophosphorylation photophosphorylation
PS II has an enzyme that (using light energy) can Non-cyclic: light hits PSII; 2 electrons go from
split water into H ions (protons), electrons and chlorophyll and down carriers to PSI; ATP is…

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23 Respiration 3 ­ the link reaction (in 24 Respiration 4 ­ Krebs cycle (in mitochondrial
mitochondrial matrix) matrix)
Each pyruvate produced in glycolysis is actively The 2C acetate carried by acetyl CoA joins 4C
pumped into the mitochondrial matrix (in aerobic oxalacetate to produce 6C citrate. This is


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