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F211
CELLS, EXCHANGE & TRANSPORT
Module 1: Cells
1.1.1 Cell Structure
1.1.2 Cell Membranes
1.1.3 Cell Division, Cell Diversity and
Cellular Organisation
Module 2: Exchange and Transport
1.2.1 Exchange Surfaces and Breathing
1.2.2 Transport in Animals
1.2.3 Transport in Plants

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MODULE 1
CELLS

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1.1.1 Cell Structure
(a) State the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a
transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron microscope;

Resolution Magnification
Light Microscope 200nm x1,500
Transmission E lectron M icroscope 0.1nm x500,000
Scanning E lectron M icroscope 0.1nm x100,000

Micrometre (m) - 10-…

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*the stains bind to certain chemicals in the structure

*Acetin orcein stains DNA red

(d) Calculate the linear magnification of an image




(e) describe and interpret drawings and photographs of eukaryotic cells as seen under an
electron microscope and be able to recognise the following structures: nucleus, nucleolus,
nuclear envelope,…

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Nuclear envelope Double membrane with nuclear Allows large molecules
pores that surrounds the nucleus (mRNA) to pass
Lysosomes Single membrane spherical sac Contains lysins that digest
organelles, pathogens and
cells. Involved in autolysis
Smooth Continuous with nuclear envelope. Involved in making lipids
Endoplasmic
reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Continuous with nuclear envelope…

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10. Cell surface membrane opens to release molecules outside this is EXOCYTOSIS



(h) Explain the importance of the cytoskeleton in providing mechanical strength to cells,
aiding transport within cells and enabling cell movement

*Provide strength, stability and support to cells

*Determines the shape and changes the shape by moving the…

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1.1.2 CELL MEMBRANES
(a) Outline the roles of membranes within cells and at the surface of cells

(b) State that plasma (cell surface) membranes are partially permeable barriers;

(c) Describe, with the aid of diagrams, the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure

(d) Describe the roles of the components of…

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1.1.3 Cell Division, Cell Diversity and
Cellular Organisation
(a) State that mitosis occupies only a small percentage of the cell cycle and that the
remaining percentage includes the copying and checking of genetic information

(b) Describe, with the aid of diagrams and photographs, the main stages of mitosis
(behaviour of…

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New nuclear envelope forms around each set

Spindle breaks down

chromosome uncoil (no longer visible)

CYTOKINESIS (POSTMITOSIS)
The whole cell splits to down two new cells, each one genetically identical to each
other and to the parent cell. They are clones.






I I Interphase
P Pull Prophase
M Men Metaphase…

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