F211 Module 1 Cells Week 1 Notes

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Monday, 10 September 2012
F211 Module 1 Cells and the Microscope
Weekly Learning Outcomes
Students should be able to:
State the resolution and magnification that can be achieved by a light microscope, a transmission
electron microscope (TEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Explain the difference between magnification and resolution.
Explain the need for staining samples for use in light microscopy and electron microscopy.
Calculate the linear magnification of an image.
The Light Microscope
Light microscopes produce images
using a number of lenses that can be viewed
directly from the eyepiece.
Light passes from a bulb under the
stage, through a condenser lens, then through
the specimen.
This beam of light is focused through
the objective lens, then through the eyepiece
If you want to view a specimen at a
different magnification you can rotate the lens
into position.
Common lenses are x4, x10 and x40
but some will also have x100.
The eyepiece lens then magnifies the
image usually at x10.
To find the total magnification of a specimen you should multiply the objective magnification by the
eyepiece magnification.
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Light Microscope
Magnification ­ Most light microscopes are capable of magnification up to a maximum of x1500.
Resolution ­ The maximum resolving power using light is 200nm. This means objects closer together than
200nm will be seen together as one object. This limit is caused by the magnitude of the wavelength of
light. Two objects can only be distinguished if light waves can pass between them.
Specimens ­ You can use light microscopes to view specimens including living organisms. Thin sections of
plants, animals and smear preparations of blood and cheek cells can also be viewed.
Preparation of Specimens for the Light Microscope
Some biological samples need staining, as you cannot otherwise see the detail. Other material distorts
when you cut it into thin sections.
To overcome the issues you need to follow these steps:

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Staining ­ Coloured stains are chemicals that bind to chemicals on or in the specimen. This allows
the specimen to be seen. Some stains bind to specific cell structures. One example is iodine, which
stains starch a dark blue/ black colour.
2. Sectioning ­ Specimens are embedded in wax. These sections are then cut without distorting the
structure of the specimen. This is particularly useful for making sections of soft tissue, such as the
brain.…read more

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Electrons are not visible to the human eye. The image produced from the electron beam is
projected onto a screen or photographic paper to make a black-and-white image.
Such images are called electron micrographs.
The resolution of an electron microscope is about 500000 times greater than that of the human
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
The electron beam passes through a very thin
prepared sample.
Electrons pass through the denser parts of the
sample less easily, so giving some contrast.…read more

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Magnification ­ The number of times greater an image is than the object.
Resolution ­ The ability to distinguish two separate points as distinct from each other.
Cell surface membrane ­ The membrane that surrounds every cell, forming the selectively permeable
boundary between the cell and the environment.
Ribosome ­ The organelle, made of two subunits, on which proteins are synthesised inside the cell.
Organelle ­ Structure inside a cell. Each structure has a specific function.…read more


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