F211: Cells, Exchange and Transport Revision Questions

A set of detailed revision questions complete with answers. Hope this helps :)

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Biology Revision Questions
What is magnification?
The amount of times larger an object is than its original size.
What is resolution?
How distinguishable two separate point are and how much detail they can be seen in.
What are the features of a light microscope? The resolution? The magnification?
There are three lenses: condenser, objective and eyepiece. There are 4 different objective lenses:
x4,x10, x40, x100. The magnification is x1500 and the resolution is 200nm. You can look at alive
spcimens and it doesn't take very long to set up, they are relatively cheap and can be seen in colour.
What are the units of measurements?
mm = millimetres, um = micrometres, nm= nanometers
What is the magnification triangle?
What is the difference between a SEM and TEM?
SEM (Scanning electron microscope) has a magnification of x100,000 and images are seen in 3D as
electrons are bounced off the specimen.
TEM (transmission electron microscope) have a magnification of x500,000 so more features can be
seen and there is contrast as electrons are fired through the specimen as some features are more
dense than other so it is harder for electrons to pass through.
Both = the have a resolution of 0.1nm and can distinguish object which are more than 0.2nm apart.
What are the advantages and limitations of the electron microscope?
Advantages: have a higher magnification and resolution than light microscopes so more detail can be
Disadvantages: it requires skill to work them, electrons have to be fired in a vacuum so they don't
react with air, they are very expensive and take a long time to prepare also specimens have to be
Why is the resolution of a light microscope lower than the electron microscopes?
Because electrons have a smaller wavelength than light
What is sectioning?
The object is covered in wax and then cut in to thin section without distorting the structure.
What is staining?
Staining bind to features so they become visible, e.g. acetic orcein stains DNA dark red.
What is `division of labour'?
Each organelle has a different job to do.
What makes up the cytoskeleton?
It is network of protein fibres which make up the infer-structure of a cell.
What processes does the cytoskeleton assist?
It helps to move thing in a cell around e.g. vesicle and chromosomes during cell division and it controls
the movement of undulipodia and cilia.
What is undulipodia and what is its structure?
Undulipodia has a 9+2 arrangement of microtubule and usually one undulipodia is used to move the
whole cell.
What are cilia and what is its structure?
Cilia has a 9+2 arrangement of microtubules and there is many cilia on one cell which waft mucus and
other foreign matter
What are vesicles and what are they used for?
Vesicles are created from the plasma membrane, Golgi and rough ER to transport molecules e.g.
What is the cell wall made of in a eukaryotic cell?

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What are cells walls for?
The function of a cell wall is to provide support to prevent collapse or bursting and also to separate
What is the structure of the nucleus?
The nucleus has a dark patch called the nucleolus and chromatin, surrounded by a nuclear envelope
and nuclear pores.
What is the function of the nucleus?
Controls the cell, houses the genetic material and contains the information for making proteins.…read more

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DNA in prokaryotes is naked, circular and not found in the nucleus, ribosome are 18nm (70s) and the
cells diameter is usually 0.5nm-1.5um
DNA in eukaryotes is surrounded by histones, circular and found in the nucleus, ribosomes are 22nm
(80s) and the cells diameter is usually 20-30um
Cell membranes:
What are the roles of the membrane?
To support the cell and organelles, to separated organelles form the cytoplasm, to allow substances
in and out of the cell and organelles.…read more

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What is exocytosis and give examples?
Several molecules are package into a vesicle with then joins to the plasma membrane and the
molecule are released out of the cell, e.g. proteins.
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water molecule from a region of high water potential to low water potential down
the water potential gradient across a partially permeable membrane. Water molecule diffuses
through the proteins.…read more

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The spindle fibres connect to the centromeres of each chromosome and guide the chromosome into
a line at the equator of the cell.
What happens during anaphase?
The spindle fibres shorten and split the centromere in half, pulling sister chromatid to opposite ends
of the cell.
What happens during telophase?
A new nuclear envelope starts to reform around the two separate groups of chromosomes.
What happens during cytokinesis?
The plasma membrane cleaves to form to cells.…read more

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Acrosome to digest the ovum, streamlined body and flagellum for fast movement, lots of
mitochondria to produce ATP for movement and the nucleus contains the haploid number of
How is a root hair cell specialised?
It has a long hair-like projection which increases surface area.
How palisade cells specialised are specialised?
They are long, thin cells so they can be packed close together, with lots of chloroplast for
photosynthesis which is near the top the cell.…read more

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There are many alveoli for a large surface area, which have their own network of capillaries which
both have a wall of one squamous epithelial cell, which reduced distance and maintains a
concentration gradient.…read more

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How do you calculate oxygen uptake?
How does a spirometer work?
An air chamber is rested on a bed of water and is filled with medical-grade oxygen which is
connected to a mouthpiece, attached to the outside of the air chamber is a pen which draws a line on
a spinning graph as a person inhales and exhales. There is also soda lime which absorbs carbon
What is used to absorb carbon dioxide?
Soda lime.…read more

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The atria contract so pressure is the highest so, the atrioventricular valves are already open due to
and the valves in the veins close, blood flows into the ventricles.
What happens in ventricular systole?
The ventricles contract apex up, so pressure is highest in the ventricles and the AV valves close and
the semi-luna open allowing blood to flow into the arteries.…read more

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How are hydrogencarbonate ions formed?
Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme which catalyses the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to
form carbonic acid, this dissociated to form H+ ions and HCO3- ions.…read more


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