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Biology Revision Questions

What is magnification?
The amount of times larger an object is than its original size.
What is resolution?
How distinguishable two separate point are and how much detail they can be seen in.
What are the features of a light microscope? The resolution? The magnification?

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What are cells walls for?
The function of a cell wall is to provide support to prevent collapse or bursting and also to separate
What is the structure of the nucleus?
The nucleus has a dark patch called the nucleolus and chromatin, surrounded by a nuclear envelope
and nuclear…

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DNA in prokaryotes is naked, circular and not found in the nucleus, ribosome are 18nm (70s) and the
cells diameter is usually 0.5nm-1.5um
DNA in eukaryotes is surrounded by histones, circular and found in the nucleus, ribosomes are 22nm
(80s) and the cells diameter is usually 20-30um

Cell membranes:

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What is exocytosis and give examples?
Several molecules are package into a vesicle with then joins to the plasma membrane and the
molecule are released out of the cell, e.g. proteins.
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water molecule from a region of high water potential to low water potential…

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The spindle fibres connect to the centromeres of each chromosome and guide the chromosome into
a line at the equator of the cell.

What happens during anaphase?
The spindle fibres shorten and split the centromere in half, pulling sister chromatid to opposite ends
of the cell.
What happens during telophase?…

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Acrosome to digest the ovum, streamlined body and flagellum for fast movement, lots of
mitochondria to produce ATP for movement and the nucleus contains the haploid number of
How is a root hair cell specialised?
It has a long hair-like projection which increases surface area.

How palisade cells specialised…

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There are many alveoli for a large surface area, which have their own network of capillaries which
both have a wall of one squamous epithelial cell, which reduced distance and maintains a
concentration gradient.
How do the lungs maintain a concentration gradient?
A concentration gradient is maintained when we ventilate,…

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tidal volume x Breaths/minute
How do you calculate oxygen uptake?

How does a spirometer work?
An air chamber is rested on a bed of water and is filled with medical-grade oxygen which is
connected to a mouthpiece, attached to the outside of the air chamber is a pen which draws…

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The atria contract so pressure is the highest so, the atrioventricular valves are already open due to
and the valves in the veins close, blood flows into the ventricles.
What happens in ventricular systole?
The ventricles contract apex up, so pressure is highest in the ventricles and the AV valves…

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5% is dissolved directly in the plasma, 10% combine with haemoglobin to form
carbominohaemoglobin, 85% are in the form of hydrogencarbonate ions (HCO3-)
How are hydrogencarbonate ions formed?
Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme which catalyses the reaction between carbon dioxide and water to
form carbonic acid, this dissociated to form…


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