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Effects of misleading information on
· Loftus and palmer (1974)
Experiment 1
· lab experiment ­ 45 students shown films of
traffic accidents.
· Questions afterwards included a critical one
about speed of the car.
· These questions used the verb `hit',
`smashed', `collided', `bumped' or `contacted'…read more

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· The group who heard the verb smashed
estimated the higher speed the group who
heard the words contacted estimated the
lowest speed. Suggesting that leading
questions can have a significant effect on
memory.…read more

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Loftus and palmer experiment 2
· They investigated whether post-event
information alters storage or retrieval.
· A different set of participants were shown a
film of an accident. A week later they were
asked whether there was any broken glass.
· Those who heard `smashed' were more likely
to recollect broken glass (there was none).
Showing post-event information affects initial
storage.…read more

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· Lacks ecological validity as it was a lab
experiment so findings cannot be generalised
to everyday life.
· Only students were used therefore does not
represent the whole population…read more

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The effect of anxiety on EWT
Weapon focus study ­ Johnson & Scott
· Ppts heard a discussion in a nearby room.
· In one condition a man comes out of the room with
pen and grease on his hand.
· The second condition he comes out with a knife and
covered in blood.
· Ppts were asked to identify the man from 50
· Condition 1 : 49% recall, condition 2 : 33%
· When a witness is frightened they are less likely to
remember their faces.
· AO2 ­ ethical issues : protection from possible
psychological harm. High ecological validity as it was
done in a natural environment.…read more

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