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Overview of EWT
· 3 stages of EWT:
· Encode ­ this may be partial or distorted
· Retain ­ memories may be modified and interfered with
· Retrieve ­ reconstruction may be influenced
· Three factors effecting EWTs:
· Misleading information
· Anxiety
· Age…read more

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Key Terms Used In This topic
· Eye Witness Testimonies (EWTs) ­ legal term for witnesses who give
evidence in court concerning the identity of a suspect
· Cognitive schema ­ mental representative of people, things etc from
past experiences activated to make sense of what is happening…read more

Slide 4

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Effects of Misleading Information of EWTs
AO1 · Loftus and Palmer (1974)
· Aim ­ investigate accuracy of memory after witnessing a car accident
· Procedure ­ 45 students were shown films of traffic accidents. P's were
asked the speed of the car but the verbs were changed ­ `smashed', `hit',
`bumped', `collided' and `contacted'.
· Findings ­ Smashed ­ 40.8 mph
- Collided ­ 39.3 mph
- Bumped ­ 38.1 mph
- Hit ­ 34.0 mph
- Contacted ­ 31.8 mph
- Conclusion ­ misleading questions can have a significant effect on memory…read more

Slide 5

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Effects of Misleading Information of EWTs
AO1 · SUPPORT STUDY OF LOFTUS AND PALMER (1974)
· Loftus and Palmer (1974)
· Procedure ­ 3 groups of P's were asked a series of questions including if
they saw any broken glass
Smashed Hit Control Group
· Findings ­
Yes 16 7 6
No 34 43 44
Total 50 50 50
· Conclusion ­ shows a significant effect on post event information on the
recall of events…read more

Slide 6

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Evaluation of the effects of misleading
information on EWTs
AO2 · Loftus et al. (1978)
3 1 4 2
· Showed P's a video of a car stopping at a junction stop/yield sign
· P's who were given a misleading question ­ 41% were correct in identification
· P's who were given consistent question ­ 75% were correct in identification
Line of · Conclusion ­ misleading information affects memory
Argument
· Bekerian + Bowers (1983) 1 2 3 4
· Disputed Loftus et al. (1978)
· P's had been presented the slides in a different sequence
· When presented in the right sequence, misleading information had no effect
· Conclusion ­ Affects retrieval of corrects not storage…read more

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