Extreme Tourism Case Study - Antarctica

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  • Created on: 01-06-16 15:41
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Extreme Tourism ­ Antarctica
Small scale tourism started in 1950s
First cruise ship to visit was in 1969
In 2006:
o 38.9% American
o 15.4% British
o 10.3% German
o 8.4% Australian
Stage 1 of the TALC model ­ exploration
2007-2008 Tourist Activities
Ship cruises
Small boat landing
Small boat cruising
Station visits
Science support
Impacts of Tourism
Landing sites are often chose for a specific feature (e.g. penguin
breeding site) these then become honeypot sites
Impact of tourism is unevenly spread as all tourists visit the same areas
(peak season is November to March, impacts are also concentrated
within these months)
Animals aren't used to human interaction and therefore interaction
changes behavioral patterns
o E.g. increase in penguins abandoning eggs
o Peak breeding season overlaps with the peak tourist season
Higher risk of oil spills if ships hit icebergs
Waste removal from cruise ships can be a problem
Sea pollution from cruise ships can damage marine environments
Increasing size of cruise ships
o Large cruise ships use heavy oil
o They aren't strengthened to survive the impact of a collision with
an iceberg
There has been and increase in the numbers of land based tourists
To what extent can Antarctica cope with the development of the tourist
IAATO (International association of Antarctic tour operators) is a group
of tour operators who signed up and agreed that tourism is safe and
environmentally friendly

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In these guidelines:
Tourists aren't allowed to visit SSSIs
Ships carrying 500+ passengers can't land on Antarctica
Planned ban on heavy fuel due to be passed in 2011, bans ships with a
500+ capacity of passengers from entering Antarctic waters
Permission must be granted for land based activities
o E.g.…read more


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