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Mineral extraction
A brief history of mining methods

The first minerals to be exploited such as flint were found on the surface. When these
were exhausted shallow pits were excavated. As these got deeper, they became
vertical shafts, with horizontal tunnels where the minerals were found in horizontal
seams. Human…

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Loss of amenity -
Mining may cause aesthetic problems for local communities. This may be reduced by
landscaping and tree planting. If the mine is turned into a community resource when
mining has ended then the long term amenity value may be increased.

Pollution -
DUST -
Dust is raised…

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Subsidence -
This is caused by poor spoil compaction or undermining of sensitive surface land uses
by deep mines. It can be reduced by compaction of spoil and by leaving support pillars
in deep mines.

Traffic congestion -
Road traffic from the mine can cause congestion and road traffic accidents.…

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