Extraction of metals AS CHEM2 notes

notes i made for myself as a project contains reduction of iron, copper, aluminium, tungsten and titanium 

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Elliot
Pace
Extraction
of
Metals
Blast
Furnace-
The
reduction
of
Iron
The
extraction
of
iron
from
its
oxide
is
done
using
carbon,
in
industry
this
is
done
by
using
coke
in
tall
towers
called
blast
furnaces.
This
is
a
continuous
process
and
the
furnaces
can
run
for
many
years
at
a
time,
the
hopper
is
charged
with
a
mixture
of
iron
oxide,
coke
and
calcium
carbonate.
The
most
commonly
used
iron
ores
are
haematite-
Fe2O3,
and
magnetite-
Fe3O4
.
Air
is
blown
into
the
bottom
of
the
furnace,
the
coke
then
burns
in
the
hot
air
to
form
carbon
dioxide,
this
is
an
exothermic
reaction
and
this
provides
the
main
heat
energy
for
the
furnace:
C
+
O2
CO2
The
temperature
in
the
furnace
now
is
around
2000°K,
the
reduction
of
the
iron
oxide
begins
as
the
high
temperature
causes
carbon
dioxide
reacts
with
the
excess
carbon
to
form
carbon
monoxide:
C
+
CO2
2CO
Carbon
monoxide
is
the
main
reducing
agent
in
the
reduction
of
iron
oxide.
Under
the
high
temperature
the
carbon
monoxide
reacts
with
the
iron
oxide
to
produce
molten
iron
and
carbon
dioxide:
Fe2O3
+
3CO
2Fe
+
3CO2
However
in
the
hottest
parts
of
the
blast
furnace
near
the
base
where
temperature
is
round
1900°K
the
pure
carbon
in
the
coke
can
become
a
reducing
agent
and
can
reduce
the
iron
oxide
to
form
molten
iron
and
carbon
monoxide
gas:
Fe2O3
+
3C
2Fe
+
3CO
Limestone
is
added
to
convert
the
slag
that
is
produce
of
the
iron
oxide
as
it
is
not
pure
and
contains
unwanted
rocky
materials
to
molten
state
so
it
can
be
ran
off
at
the
base
through
the
slag
mouth
to
prevent
the
furnace
from
clogging
up.
However
using
the
blast
furnace
has
a
detrimental
effect
to
the
environment
as
it
produces
such
large
amounts
of
carbon
dioxide
and
carbon
monoxide
gases.
It
also
takes
a
lot
of
energy
and
resources
to
maintain
the
high
temperatures
inside
of
the
furnace.
This
again
cases
damage
to
the
environment
as
these
materials
have
to
be
mined
and
transported

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Extracting
zinc
from
zinc
sulphate
Zinc's
ore
is
not
an
oxide
when
extracted
from
the
earth
it
is
a
sulphide.
However
sulphides
can
not
be
reduced
like
oxides
in
a
blast
furnace.…read more

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Elliot
Pace
Extracting
copper-
New
method
The
modern
day
method
of
extracting
copper
does
not
require
thermal
decomposition
to
convert
the
copper
carbonate
into
an
oxide.
Instead
to
convert
the
carbonate
a
solution
is
made
that
contains
Cu2+
ions.
This
is
done
by
spraying
copper
mining
waste
with
an
acid
in
the
presence
of
thiobacillus
ferrooxidans
bacterium.
This
is
highly
efficient
as
the
bacterium
will
extract
the
metal
ores
in
the
solution.
The
copper
is
extracted
from
the
solution
by
the
addition
of
iron.…read more

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Extraction
of
Titanium-
Displacement
reduction
Titanium
is
a
very
strong
and
durable
metal
and
has
quite
a
high
demand
for
building
materials
and
armour
plating
military
purposes.
Titanium
can
not
be
reduced
by
carbon
as
producing
titanium
carbide
weakens
the
titanium
causing
it
to
be
brittle.
The
titanium
must
firstly
be
converted
into
titanium
chloride.…read more

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