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Why respire?
Energy: is the ability to work. It can't be destroyed only transferred into
various forms.
Anabolic reactions: where large molecules are synthesised from smaller
ones (eg. Condensation)
Catabolic reactions: where smaller molecules are made from a larger
molecule (eg. Hydrolysis)
Uses of respiration:
Active transport: eg. Na+ and K+ pumps in neurones
Secretion: exporting proteins after synthesis.
Endocytosis: phagocytes when destroying pathogens.
Replication of DNA
Movement: of flagella and cillia.
Synthesis: of macromolecules, eg. Amylose.
Activation of chemicals: eg. Activation of pyruvate in glycolysis.…read more

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Respiration flow diagram
Lactate fermentation
Ethanol fermentation
Glucose to Link reaction: Oxidative
Pyruvate to AcetylCoA Krebs cycle Phosporylation
Reduced NAD
2ATP Reduced NAD ATP Reduced FAD
2Reduced NAD…read more

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Why ATP ?
ATP is a phosphorylated nucleotide and is the universal energy currency (all
cell types can use it as an immediate source of energy).(see picture)
Each molecule consists of adenosine (adenine and ribose) plus 3
phosphoryl groups.
Can be hydrolysed to ADP and Pi (inorganic phosphate group).
When hydrolysed 30.6 Kjmol-1 is released, it is a manageable amount that is
readily available that does not damage the cell. This also means no energy is
It can be re-built by condensation to then release more energy.
ATP can be broken down to ADP to AMP.…read more

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Role of Coenzymes
Oxidation: loss of electrons, gain of oxygen and loss of hydrogen.
Reduction: gain of electrons, loss of oxygen and gain of hydrogen.
Coenzymes needed as enzymes are not very good at catalysing
oxidation/reduction reactions.
During glycolysis, Link reaction, Krebs cycle H atoms are removed by
oxidation reactions. Coenzymes such as NAD help remove the H atoms,
(dehydrogenase enzymes). They are reduced.
NAD transport the H atoms to the cristae of the mitochondria where they are
used in oxidative phosphorylation.
Coenzyme A (CoA) has a function of transporting Acetate from the link
reaction to the Krebs cycle.…read more

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Mitochondria: Structure
Mitochondria: Organelles in eukaryotic cells. The aerobic stages of respiration.
Inner and outer phospholipid layers make up the mitochondrial envelope. The
outer layer is smooth while the inner layer is folded into cristae, creating a large
surface area. In between the two membranes is a space called the mitochondrial
intermembrane space.
The matrix is enclosed by the inner membrane. It is semi-rigid and gel like, it
consists of proteins, lipids, looped mitochondrial DNA, ribosomes and enzymes.
Mitochondria are rod shaped or thread like, most have a diameter of 0.5-1.0µm
and 2-5µm in length.
The more metabolically active a cell, the more mitochondria it has, these have
more densely packed and longer cristae to house more electron transport chains
and ATP synthase enzymes for better ATP production.
Mamillian liver cells have 20% of their volume taken up by mitochondria.
Mitochondria can be moved along the cytoskeleton within a cell to be stationed
in a high ATP demanding site, for example: the synaptic knob in a neurone.…read more

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