Extra biology 6BI05 (unit 5) questions

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  • Created on: 20-06-13 07:03
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June 2013 article related questions
1) Suggest why a dispersive morph in naked mole-rat colonies helps with the continuation of
the naked mole-rat species. (2)
2) Naked mole-rats have DNA fingerprints that have coefficients of band sharing ranging from
0.93-0.99.
Outline the process that occurs to produce these DNA fingerprints. (5)
3) An extracellular molecule may be able to be applied to humans as an injection or drug to
treat cancer. [Paragraph 30]
What are the normal stages of testing that must be gone through to allow this treatment to
be sold as a treatment for cancer? (4)
4) Suggest and explain two reasons why naked mole rats might not survive global
warming/climate change. (4)
5) Suggest reasons why naked mole rats are "impervious to chemical pain". [paragraph 31] (3)
6) p27 is a gene that codes for a protein to control the cell cycle. [paragraph 27]
State the stages of the cell cycle and what happens in them. (4)
7) Give one reason why it is expected that long-lived animals are likely to develop cancer, as
opposed to shorter-lived animals. [Paragraph 21] (1)
8) Researchers are looking at "the similarities and differences of how varied but closely related
species deal with cancer." [Paragraph 18]
*Explain how one species can become two different closely related species. (6)
9) What conclusion can be drawn from the statement in paragraph 10? (1)
10) Naked mole rats don't show signs of heart disease as they age. [Paragraph 7]
Outline the sequence of events leading to the development of the cardiovascular disease
atherosclerosis. (4)
11) It is suggested the naked mole-rat neurones "retain immature characteristics". [Paragraph
40]
State one characteristic that the naked mole rat's neurones might retain. (1)
12) What percentage of normal CO2 levels are naked mole rats "perfectly happy to wallow
around in"? [Paragraph 33] (2)

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General 6BI05 questions
1) Compare anaerobic respiration in animals and plants (or microorganisms). (4)
2) Describe the two process by which hormones can cause certain genes to be turned on.
(4)
3) What is the negative feedback principle? (2)
4) Describe the ATP/PC system. (3)
5) Name the enzyme used to synthesise ATP in the electron transport chain. (1)
6) Name the two antagonistic muscles that work to control the size of the eye, and state
whether they contract to dilate or constrict the pupil.…read more

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June 2013 article related questions (answers)
1) - Promotes outbreeding
- Idea of helping to increase the {gene pool}
- More likely to survive changes in habitat (if number of genes increased)
2) - Reference to extracting DNA
- Add {restriction enzymes/endonucleases}
- (To) cut the DNA into fragments
- Use gel electrophoresis to separate the fragments/description of gel electrophoresis
- Transfer bands to a nylon/eq sheet
- Incubate with DNA probes
- Idea of exposing to UV light/x-rays to develop the DNA profile
3)…read more

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Each population is subjected to different {selection pressures}
- Different {mutations} in each population accumulate
- Idea of advantageous alleles being passed on to the next generation
- There is a difference in the gene pools of each population/species due to different allele
frequencies
- Idea of another (different) mutations accumulating so that the two populations/species
could/would not reproduce to make {fertile and viable} offspring if they met again
9) - Idea of ageing/cancer/eq not being purely due to oxidative stress
10) - The inner-surface…read more

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General 6BI05 questions (answers)
1) - Anaerobic respiration in animals produces {lactate/lactic acid} AND in
plants/microorganisms produces {ethanol}
- Both begin from glycolysis/conversion of glucose to (two) pyruvate(s)
- Idea of both synthesising {the same amount of/two/eq} amounts of ATP
- Idea of anaerobic respiration in plants/microorganisms having more stages/steps
- Idea of anaerobic respiration in plants/microorganisms involving losing CO2 and
anaerobic respiration in animals doesn't
- Both require the {oxidation of/removal of hydrogen from/eq} {reduced NAD/NADH}
- Only anaerobic respiration in plants/microorganisms (also) requires…read more

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Light causes rhodopsin to break down
- Rhodopsin breaks down into opsin and retinal
- Reference to opsin indirectly causing the {hydrolysis} of a molecule on the
{cation/sodium/eq} channel
- Reference to the closure of the {cation/sodium/eq} channel
- Reference to sodium being pumped out of the {inner segment} causing
{Hyperpolarisation} of the rod cell
- Idea of no action potential/impulse being generated
- (Therefore) there is no neurotransmitter released at the synapse
- The synapse between the rod cell and bipolar cell is {inhibitory}…read more

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So that the snail becomes {habituated}
13) - Idea of energy not being wasted on useless reflexes to {non-threating stimuli/eq}
14) - Sodium/potassium ion pump moves sodium ions out of the neurone and potassium
ions into the neurone
- {Some/eq} potassium ions move out of the neurone through potassium channels due
to {diffusion}
- Reference to the electrical gradient allowing {some/eq} potassium ions to move back
into the neurone
- Idea of (overall effect causing) more ions outside of the neurone, hence the more
positive…read more

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