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Class Differences in
achievement- External Factors…read more

Slide 2

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Cultural Deprivation
· Having a lack of basic values, attitudes
and skills needed for a successful
· According to theorists, many of the
children that are culturally deprived are
from working class backgrounds. This is
due to the lack of educational equipment
that they have, due to lack of money.…read more

Slide 3

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Cultural Deprivation- Intellectual
· This refers to the development of thinking and reasoning skills, such
as problem solving.
· Many theorists say that working class homes don't have enough
educational books, toys etc that stimulate the child's mind. They
argue that by not having such educational resources, stop the child
from developing intellectually. This then means that the child lacks
what other children don't have.
· Douglas argues that working class parents often don't support their
child with reading and stimulating their minds are lacking what
middle class children have and therefore, aren't as ready to
progress as much.
· Bernstein and Young found that the way a parent thinks about the
toys that they buy for their child has a great effect on their
intellectual development. For example, middle class parents are
likely to buy toys that encourage the child's reasoning skills and get
them prepared for education.…read more

Slide 4

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Cultural Development- Language
· Bereiter and Engelmann claimed that language used in working class homes is
deficient compared to middle class language. As a result, they can't develop their
language and can't understand or produce `exam level language'.
· Bernstein also did a similar study. He found that the difference in the more
developed, middle class language and the undeveloped, working class language
affected the child's achievement.
· RESTRICTED CODE- often used by working class people. It has limited vocabulary
and is often grammatically simple. Speech is predictable and often only uses single
words or even expressions (gestures or on face). It is descriptive not analytical. And
often, the speaker often believes that they person they are speaking to has the same
experiences as themselves.
· ELABORATED CODE- often used by middle class people. Uses a wider range of
vocabulary and is based on longer, more complex sentences. Speech is varied and
can be imaginative. The speaker does not necessarily believe that the listener has
had the same experiences as themselves.
· At many schools, they tend to use elaborated code as it is excepted in most exams.
This then puts the working class child at a disadvantage.
· Early socialisation of the elaborate code, means that the child is developed enough
when they start school as they have been brought up using this language. However,
the working class child would have to learn elaborate code as they have been used to
communicating in restricted code most of their lives.…read more

Slide 5

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Cultural Development- Attitudes
and Values
· Many theorists argue that a parent's attitude is vital in their child's
educational development.
· Douglas found that working class parents don't place as much value on
education as middle class parents. They are also less ambitious and they
gave them less encouragement and had less interest in their child's
education. He also found that working class parents visited schools less
often. This then gave the child less motivation.
· Working class people have a certain sub culture, where the focus is on have
fun and living today not caring about tomorrow and once one person `gives
up' on education, so do the rest. On the other hand, middle class people
tend to study together, encourage each other to do better etc.
· This view is held by Hyman. He believes that this belief that is held by
working class people is a `self imposed barrier' to education and career
success. This is due to a belief that they aren't good enough for the higher
status jobs and they shouldn't try as they won't get anywhere. They are less
eager to make the sacrifices needed for educational success (e.g. staying
behind to catch up, do homework etc). They would rather leave education at
16 and go into manual working. This subculture ensures that the person
doesn't want to have educational success nor do they know how to.…read more

Slide 6

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Sugarman believes that working class sub- culture creates a barrier
from educational success.
· 1) Fatalism- a belief in fate; whatever will be will be so there is no
point in trying to change it. Whilst the middle class believe that they
should do everything in their power to achieve educational success.
· 2) Collectivism- valuing being part of a group more than succeeding
as an individual, this then means that as one person `drops out' of
education it is likely that the other members will too. Whilst the
middle class attitude believes that you shouldn't be held back by
· 3) Immediate Gratification- seeking pleasure now rather than
sacrificing now and wait for the benefits later. Whilst the middle
class child will sacrifice now and wait for the rewards later.
· 4) Present- time Orientation- seeing the present as more important
than the future. This could mean not having any future aspirations or
plans. Whilst the middle class child will have an idea about what
they would like to do and attempt to achieve it. This means that they
do have future aspirations or plans.
· Sugarman believes that these differences exist due to middle class
families having a long history of secure jobs with the possibility to
improve. Whilst the working class child may be used to having family
with insecure jobs which then leads them to think that there is no
point in trying as there probably won't be a job anyway.…read more

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