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Exposure Theory
· Viewers of all ages exposed to enormous
amount of prosocial behaviour
Howard and Roberts
(2002)
14 month old children
does not test how long the engage in parasocial
behaviour lasted behaviour when watching
"Teletubies"
also interacted with
viewing companion by clapping or singing
smiling + pointing…read more

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Cognitive Priming Theory
We learn scripts when watching prosocial TV (can be activated when queued)
Research using MRI When people watch TV Area responsible for STORING
scanners SCRIPTS is very active
· Hodges and Trip (1986) suggested -> watching prosocial TV
develops cognition and is a necessary part of socialisation as
children learn to develop important cognitive structures.…read more

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Social Learning Theory (Bandura)
· Learning by imitation of models
· Vicarious reinforcement
· More likely to copy if model is: similar to us/
kind/ pleasant AO2 : effects short lived, only several
weeks
Rushton (1975)
AO3: Low reliability, due to many
confounding variables -> no control
after
watching prosocial programmes
improves children's' attitude A03: can not be generalised to other age
towards prosocial beh. groups
Elaboration: family and env. play big
role…read more

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Van Evra showed that there is an association
between watching prosocial TV and the level
of cooperation and positive interaction
between children.
No cause ­effect
relationship:
- Prosocial TV inc.
cooperation
-Cooperative children
seek prosocial TV
Show possible link
between two variables
So new ideas for
research can be born…read more

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Fogal (2007)
· Canadian children 8-12 yr old
· When watching a prosocial programme was
fallowed by discussion with adult, levels of
prosocial behaviour were highest
- AO3: High ecological validity -> real programmes
- AO3: Demand characteristics -> knew they were
observed so given more socially desirable answers
- AO3: Canadian so can not be generalised to other
cultures…read more

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