Slides in this set
Child learns through the
CLASSICAL. consequences of their actions.
Learning by association. The milk is an If we do something and it has
unconditional stimulus which provides a pleasant consequence, we
an unconditional reflex of pleasure at are more likely to produce that
behaviour again. If we do
relief from hunger.
something that has a negative
consequence, we're less likely
The baby associates the person who to do it again.
feeds them with the food and soon the
person alone is enough to produce a In terms of attachment, a
response of pleasure. newborn baby will cry in
response to feelings of hunger
or cold. When we cuddle them,
they're likely to stop crying.
This is rewarding the baby.
The Learning Theory of
Primate studies have
shown that attachment Provides adequate
appears to be based more explanations of how
on the need for comfort attachments form.
rather than for feeding.
Harlow created two wire `mothers'. One of
which consisted of a feeding bottle attached
and the other was wrapped in soft cloth, but
Reductionist in nature. offered no food.
According to the learning theory, the young
Ignores other possibilities monkeys should have become attached to
as to how attachments the lactating mother. However, the monkeys
form. Explanation too spent most time with the cloth-covered
mother and would cling to it, especially when
narrow. they were frightened (proximity-seeking
EVALUATING THE LEARNING
This theory suggests forming attachments is innate and adaptive.
It is a process for both the parent and the child.
Attachment operates in order to:
- To ensure the child's safety.
- To create a model for emotional relationships. He suggested children
developed an internal model which is a set of conscious and unconscious
behaviour has expectations and rules regarding our relationships.
evolved and - Has to be done in the sensitive period (3 years), if it doesn't happen by
endured because then the internal model would be never be established, risking the
it promotes relationships as they get older.
survival. - To provide a secure base for exploration.
- Bowlby also suggested a child develops a single attachment to the person
who is most important to them theory of monotropy.…read more
HAZAN & SHAVER
Investigated the impact of Secure. Close with parents. Secure,
attachment on adulthood. 215 stable relationship in adulthood.
men. 415 women. 6% divorce rate.
1) Which of three descriptions
best applied to their Anxious/avoidant. Mother was
feelings/experiences about cold. Fear of adult intimacy and
romantic relationships. jealousy. 12% divorce rate.
2) A simple adjective checklist
that best describes their Anxious/ambivalent. Father unfair.
childhood relationships with Obsessive & jealous. 10% divorce
their parents. rate.
This positively supports
Found three types of childhood
attachments Bowlby's theory that
THEORY. EVALUATION…read more
Bowlby's theory is thorough as it
Black and Schutte explains both how and why we form
found a positive link attachments. Also explains the
between the types consequences if no attachment is
of childhood and
adult relationships, formed- it hinders cognitive
like Bowlby development
Rutter's criticism was that even though
Bowlby shows that deprivation can have a
lasting affect on the child's development,
Bowlby's theory he does not take into account that
ignored experiences throughout the child's life
relationships with also matter as well as their early
siblings, which other
find significant. Bee
suggested there are
different kinds of
THEORY. EVALUATION…read more