Explanations For Institutional Aggression

10 AO1s and 17 AO2s. A* essay. Set out in table for easy memorising.

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  • Created by: Andrew F.
  • Created on: 21-06-12 16:08
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Explanations For Institutional Aggression ­ Andrew F
AO1's AO2's
1 Institutional aggression is when those placed
in some form of structured institution
become aggressive toward staff or others
who have been institutionalised.
2 There are two models which attempt to 1 Supportive evidence for the importation model
explain institutional aggression. The first is comes from the study of dispositional factors.
the importation model. This states that the Correlations have been found between factors
conditions of the institution may be the trigger such as education or race, and aggression in
for aggression, but the underlying cause is institutions, suggesting that dispositional
dispositional and `imported' into the factors are indeed `imported'.
3 Personal factors such as alcohol addiction 2 A recent study found a significant positive
can also be imported into an institution. correlation between the alcohol dependence of
202 Canadians and the level of serious
institutional misconduct.
3 However this is only a correlation, which
means it the results are not causal. In this
case, it means we cannot be sure whether
alcohol caused misconduct, or whether the
misconduct caused alcohol addiction.
4 Studies of American prison records found 4 However this research is culturally biased and
inmates with ties to gang culture had higher Eurocentric because it was conducted in
levels of aggression, suggesting the gang America. Therefore it is not generalisable to
mentality of violence was imported into the other cultures.
5 The importation model is deterministic
because it says that you will always act in a
certain way without thinking.
6 Although the model can be useful, it fails to
suggest any method of combating institutional
5 The second model is the deprivation model.
This states that institutional aggression is
caused by the deprivation experienced whilst
staying or being kept in an institution.
6 The deprivation model names five categories 7 Support for the concept of the psychological
of deprivation, the first being deprivation of division comes from PrenticeDunn and
liberty. The loss of freedom tells the individual Rogers who investigated deindividuation
they cannot be trusted, creating a when an individual loses either his public or
psychological division between themselves private selfawareness. This loss can lead to
and society. aggression.
8 Zimbardo confirmed the theory of
deindividuation in his infamous Stanford prison
experiment, which found that deindividuated
guards and prisoners showed violence
towards each other.
7 The second category of deprivation is the 9 However this is reductionist because
deprivation if autonomy. This can cause a frustration does not always precede
feeling of powerlessness, which can cause aggression.
frustration, leading to aggression.
8 The third category is deprivation of goods 10 However another explanation, using the
and services. This suggests that the drop in example of prison, is that level of deprivation of
comfort levels may cause aggressive goods and services is moderated based on

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Explanations For Institutional Aggression ­ Andrew F
tendencies. seriousness of crime. Some inmates might
find this unfair and rebel against this, therefore
becoming aggressive.
9 The fourth category is deprivation of 11 This is questionable because it only includes
heterosexual relationships which can lead to men and does not suggest whether women
stress, frustration and fear of homosexual have the same need for a heterosexual
encounters. All of these could contribute to relationship. This is gender bias. Also,
aggressive behaviour.…read more


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