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Explanation for why ionic bonding can have covalent characteristics
When the cation in an ionic compound has a high charge density (small atomic radius and high charge)
and the anion has a low charge density (large atomic radius and smaller charge) the ionic compound
will be more covalent. This is due to that fact that that cation with a high charge density can more
easily attract electrons from the anion. The anion can also give them up more easily because the
outer electrons are not very attracted to the nucleus of the atom since there are many shells so there
is a large electron shielding effect, so they move more easily to the cation.
This then forms a more covalent bond as pairs of electrons are closer together.
This is when the shape of the molecule starts to look more joined together, instead of being spate
like in ionic compounds.
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Common questions are multiple choice questions where you will be asked which diagram shows the
bonding best in an ionic compound such as sodium chloride.
Another multiple choice question that tends to be asked is whether the boning in group 7 (halides)
become more covalent r ionic as you go down or up the group.
1. If the cation is high up on the periodic table it has less shells which means it has a higher