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Psychology Notes Experiments

Types of Variables

Independent Variable ­ The variable that is manipulated by the investigator

Dependent Variable ­ The variable that is measured

Control Variables ­ Variables that are controlled during the investigation

Extraneous Variables ­ Variables that have the potential to confound the study if they are…

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Repeated Measures Design ­ When each participant is tested in only one of the
conditions
No individual differences
Fewer participants needed
More likely for the IV to be discovered (more likely to respond to demand
characteristics)
Participants may experience boredom/fatigue (order effects)

Matched Pairs Design ­ Where the participants are…

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Having multiple observers DOES NOT automatically increase interrate reliability ­ they must be
trained to observe the same things in the same way


Validity in Experiments

Control ­ Failing to control extraneous variables may mean that it is not the IV affecting the DV
and the experiment is not valid…

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