Experimental Method

Notes on the Experimental Method for who ever is taking AS Psychology on the AQA board.

* these notes helped me get an A :)

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  • Created by: Noura
  • Created on: 18-03-13 09:14
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The Experimental Method
Definition of Experiment: Controlled situation two variables
affecting one another.
Advantages:
Establish cause and effect
Reliability
Disadvantages:
Less Valid (because degree of control is high)
Generalizability
Three types of experiments:
1) Natural/Quasi Experiment : The IV is not being manipulated
by the experimenter but, it is occurring naturally in the
environment.
2) Laboratory Experiment: conducted in a special
environment where variables can be carefully controlled by
the experimenter.
Advantages:
More reliable
Sampling
Control of Extraneous Variables
Disadvantages:
Lacks Validity
Not ecologically validity
3) Field Experiment: experiment conducted in natural
experiment ­ less likely participants know they are in an
experiment.

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Advantages:
More Ecologically Valid
No/Less Demand Characteristics
Disadvantages:
Lacks Reliability
Confounding & Extraneous Variables
The Experimental Design
Definitions:
Counterbalancing: randomising the order of activity
Participant Variables/ Individual Differences: features of
participants that can influence results.
Order Effects: order of which you do the activities
Practise Effects: get better
Fatigue Effects: get worse
Types of Experiment Designs
1) Independent Measures: testing two SEPARATE groups of
people. Each group is tested in a different condition.…read more

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Matched Pairs: An independent measures design but with
the individual differences between the groups controlled
e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, social background, IQ
3) Repeated Measures: testing the SAME group of people in
different conditions ­ same people are used repeatedly.
Advantages:
No individual differences
Disadvantages:
Order Effects
Remedy
Counterbalancing technique
Aims & Hypotheses
AIM: ((the why)) General statement about, purpose of
investigation.
HYPOTHESES: ((the how)) Precise, testable statement about the
expected outcome of the experiment.…read more

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Variables
Independent Variables (IV): one experimenter manipulates
Dependent Variables (DV): factor experimenter measures.…read more

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