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The Experimental Method

Definition of Experiment: Controlled situation two variables
affecting one another.

Advantages:

Establish cause and effect
Reliability

Disadvantages:

Less Valid (because degree of control is high)
Generalizability

Three types of experiments:

1) Natural/Quasi Experiment : The IV is not being manipulated
by the experimenter but, it is occurring…

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Advantages:

More Ecologically Valid
No/Less Demand Characteristics

Disadvantages:

Lacks Reliability
Confounding & Extraneous Variables

The Experimental Design

Definitions:

Counterbalancing: randomising the order of activity

Participant Variables/ Individual Differences: features of
participants that can influence results.

Order Effects: order of which you do the activities

Practise Effects: get better

Fatigue Effects:…

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2) Matched Pairs: An independent measures design but with
the individual differences between the groups controlled
e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, social background, IQ

3) Repeated Measures: testing the SAME group of people in
different conditions ­ same people are used repeatedly.

Advantages:

No individual differences

Disadvantages:

Order Effects

Remedy

Counterbalancing…

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Variables

Independent Variables (IV): one experimenter manipulates
Dependent Variables (DV): factor experimenter measures.


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