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Exchange Surface & Breathing
Exchange Surfaces

Cells need to take in oxygen (for aerobic respiration) and nutrients (e.g. glucose). They also need to excrete waste
products like carbon dioxide and urea.
Smaller organisms have a higher surface area to volume ratio.
Volume = L x W x H Surface area…

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o Causes the ribcage to move upwards and outwards, the diaphragm flattens.
o Volume of the thorax increases, lung pressure decreases so air flows into the lungs.
o Active process.



Expiration...
o The intercostal and diaphragm muscles relax.
o Causes the ribcage to move downwards and inwards, the diaphragm curves…

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