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1. Identify these two organelles from their descriptions and state their functions:

a. An oval shaped organelle surrounded by a double membrane. The inner membrane is
folded and projects into the inner space, which is filled with grainy material

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b. A collection of flattened membrane…

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3.
a. Explain what crossing over is and how it leads to genetic variation
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b. Explain how independent assortment leads to genetic variation
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4.
a. Describe…

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b. In what type of plants does double fertilisation occur?
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5.
a. Define totipotent
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b. Define pluripotent
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c. Describe how differential gene expression results in the production of specialised
cells
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b. Explain how natural selection can lead to adaptations becoming more common in
populations
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7. Compare the structure and function of Xylem vessels and…

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8. Describe an experiment you could carry out to investigate the effects of nitrate deficiency
on a plant.
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(5 marks)
9.
a. Describe how William Withering discovered and…

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b. A new drug made from a plant extract would have to go trough clinical trials before
it's made available to patients. Describe the process.
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(5 marks)

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