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Relationships -
Evolutionary explanations of parental investment:
Parental investment is investment which increases a child's chances of survival
at the expense of the parent's ability to invest in other children.

Males produce vast amounts of sperm over a long period of time, incurring few
costs in the way of time…

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Goss and Shine (1981) report that with internal fertilization parental
care is carried out by females in 86% of species, whereas with external
fertilization parental care is carried out by males in 70% of species,
supporting the predictions based on paternal certainty.
Krebs and Davies (1981) report that the…


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