Evolutionary explanations of food preference

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Evolutionary explanations for food preference
A01 Studies A02/3
Usi
ng spi
ces
­ cul
tur
al
tr
ansmi
ssi
on.
Spi
ces
such as Sher
ma n
& Hash
(2001)
­
mor
e s
p i
ces
used
in
hot
count
ri
es
­ especi
all
y i
n meat
­
far
oni
on and
gar
li
c ar
e ext
remel
y
eff
ecti
ve
at
kil
l
ing
bacter
ia
­ more
danger
ous i
f
spoi
led.
adapt
ive.
Spread
by communi
cat
ion
and model
li
ng ­
not
genes
Neophobi
a ­
ani
mals
tend
to
avoi
d f
oods t
hey have
not
Fr
ost
(2006)
­
an aspect
of
t
his
neophobi
a i
s t
hat
we
tend
to
show gr
eat
er
li
ki
ng
for
f
oods Evol
uti
onar
y appr
oach
aft
er
the
event
cr
it
ic
ise
w i
th
come
across
bef
ore.
Can l
ead t
o a
dul
l
diet
. as
they
become more
famil
iar
. SLT
Tast
e Aversi
on l
earning:
i
f
w e
ea t
a
food t
hat
ma kes us A
study
that
supports
thi
s i
s Garci
a,
R usi
niak
and Bret
t
(1977)
­ where t
hey made
w ol
ves Reducti
onist
we'
re
not
a
hunt
ergat
her
er
soci
ety
si
ck,
i
t
w oul
d be an
evoluti
onary
ad vant
age to
avoid
that
s
ick
w i
th
lamb's
me at
contaminat
ed
w i
th
a mil
d poi
son and
w r
appe d
in
shee pski
n.
Wh en anymore!
f
ood i
n f
uture.
al
lowed t
o approach
li
ve sheep,
t
he
w ol
ves woul
d approach,
sni
ff
,
an d
then l
eave t
he sheepUse of
nonh uman
animal
s
Tast
e aversi
on l
earni
ng
is
highl
y speci
fi
c and ext
remely al
one.
They had
learnt
t
o associ
ate
the poi
son wi
th sheep.
R at
s al
so show powe r
ful
t
aste
i
ntense.
Just
one
experi
e nce
w i
l
l
a f
fect
t
he animal'
s aver
sion
lear
n i
ng.
I
f
po i
soned at
t
he same
ti
me
as t
hey ar
e f
ed
w i
th
both a
famil
iar
and
behavi
our
for
mo nths
as i
t
contri
butes
to
ke epi
ng t
he unf
amili
ar
food,
avoid
the unf
amili
ar
food,
as t
heir
pr
e vi
ous
experi
e nce
tel
ls
them that
the
ani
ma l
al
ive.
f
amili
ar
food
is
safe.
The
me dici
ne ef
fect
:
evi
dence
that
ani
ma l
s can
lear
n a G arci
a et
al
:
f
ound
that
when a
dist
inct
ive
fl
avour
is
present
ed t
o a
thi
amined ef
ici
ent
r
at U se of
non human ani
ma l
s
pr
eference
that
ma kes
them healt
hier
,
w i
th
any f
ood eat
en and
then
fol
lowed
by and
inj
ect
ion
of t
hiamine
in
the
animal
w i
l
l
acquir
e a
pref
erence
for
t
hatDeter
minist
ic
­ because
it
's
suggesti
ng t
hat
you
can
j
ust
befor
e
recover
y f
rom il
l
n ess
being
pref
e r
red
in
the f
l
a vour
. onl
y sel
ect
food
due t
o i
t making
you f
eel
bett
er
and t
hat
f
utur
e .
ot
her f
actor
s such
as,
me di
a/
pe er
i
nfl
uence
can't
hel
p
det
er a
person'
s f
ood pref
erence
We evol
ved t
o eat
me at
t
o comp ensat
e f
or
a decli
ne i
n Mil
ton
(2008) cl
aimed
earl
y huma ns
secured enough nut
ri
ti
on f
rom earl
y vegetar
ian
diet
s ­ Use of
non human animal
in
research
­ were
dif
fer
ent
qual
it
y of
pl
ant
foods
2mill
ion
years
a go.
Liver
,
kidney
and evol
ved i
nto act
ive &
int
ell
ectual
animals.
Me at
had amino aci
ds,
mineral
s & nut
ri
ents fr
om chimps ­
hard
to appl
y t
o huma ns
br
ain
provi
ded people
w i
th
high
level
s of
ener
g y.
Me at
human s
requir
ed
to
suppleme nt
di
et wi
th l
ow quali
ty
plant
based
foods wit
h f
ew
nutr
ient
s &
di
ets,
densel
y
p acked
in
nutr
ients
, pr
ovided
catal
yst
for
t
he hi
gh cal
ories.
Food pref
erence
is
mu ch
mo re
than j
ust
about
our
gr
ow t
h of
t
he br
a i
n. ancestor
s as
our
food pr
eferences
are const
antl
y
Cri
ti
ci
sed
by l
o w chol
esterol
f
oods bei
n g
a good choi
ce t
oday,
but can'
t
be expl
ained
in
the changing
and i
ndivi
dual
dif
ferences
in
food
prefer
ence
EEA.
An i
ma l
f
a t
s har
mf ul
t
o us
today ­
w e
avoid
them in
order
to
ma i
ntain
a heal
thy
diet
. are
key ­
some
peop l
e ar
e vegetar
ian,
some
vegan
and
some
w i
l
l
eat
any f
orm of
food.
Evi
den ce
fr
o m other
pri
ma t
es Stanf
o r
d (
1 999)
­
E EA meat i
mp or
tant
source
of
S at
urday
f
at.
S t
anford observed
chimps i
n Tanzania'
s Gomb e Nati
onal
Park ­
w hen
coming cl
ose t
o
st
arvat
ion f
or much of
year ­
w ent
f
or f
att
iest
part
s of
meat
on
prey.
The
EEA St
anford
­
star
ving
mo st
year
­ chi
mp s
go
for
fat
ti
est
A dapti
ve pr
obl
ems
­ shaped
earl
y f
ood
pref
erence par
ts
of t
heir
ki
ll
L i
ve i
n hunt
ergather
er
societ
ies,
l
ead
to
pref
erence May mask proxi
mity
causes
of t
he same behavi
our
of
hi
gh cal
ori
e an
avai
labl
e f
oods Hi
gh fat
f
oo ds
not
benefi
cial
t
o us
now
Ear
ly
diet
s ­
prefer
e nce
for
fat
ty
foods Earl
y
d i
ets
­ pr
eference
for
f
att
y f
oo ds BIOLOGICAL APPROACH
H arsh
condit
ions of
t
he EAA
­ ener
gy r
esour
ces Gibson
&
Wa r
d l
e ­
pref
erence
of f
rui
t
&
veg
= r
ich
in
cal
ori
es
­ pr
efer
red
by
4 5
year
ol
ds
­T he
biol
ogical
approach
su ggest
s that
Amygdala
vit
al
to
stay al
ive s
u pport
s i
dea
w e'
ve evol
ved
w i
th
prefer
ence
of
high
cal
ori
e f
ood cont
rol
s our
f
ood
prefer
en ce
on the
basis
of
previ
ous
F ood
rich
in
calor
ies
­
promote
survi
val
exper
iences
­ Roll
s and Roll
s st
udy!
Dama ge
to
the
A mygd al
a =
K l
uver Bucy
S yndr
ome
Ear
ly
diet
s ­
bit
ter
t
ast
e Sandel
l
& Bresl
i
n
­ s
tudi
es var
iant
s ­
bit
ter
t
aste
recept
or
gene.
D et
ect
ing
glucosi
nol
ates
­ BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH
D et
ect
harmful
t
oxi
ns
in
plant
s s
igni
fi
cant
adapti
ve advant
age ­
w i
despr
e ad
today We l
earn
o ur
f
ood pr
efer
ences f
rom ot
her
people
­ Bi
rch
and
Fis
h er
suggest
t
hat
a good
indi
cat
or
of
gir
ls
eati
ng

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Evolutionary explanations for food preference
pr
eferences
/
b ehavi
our
i
s t
he
pref
erences
of
thei
r
mothers.
Parental
modell
i
n g
suggests
that
par
ents
choose
the f
oods bought
i
n t
he
home
­ pr
events
chi
ldr
en developi
ng t
hei
r
o wn f
ood pr
eference.…read more

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