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Psychology unit 3 aggression
Evolutionary explanations into aggression- jealousy
Reasons for jealousy in males stem from parental uncertainty and suspicions of
cuckoldry. Males have paternal uncertainty (which is when they are unsure if the
child is there's) leading to jealousy of the other potential father. This causes
aggression that is focused on the female to make sure she stays loyal to the male
as he doesn't want to use his resources to bring up someone else's genes to pass on
to the next generation.
Buss' strategies to prevent infidelity found that direct guarding was used by frogs
to make sure that the female wasn't mating with other males by sitting on her for 1
month. Also found that monkeys use negative inducement to make a female stay
loyal by beating her. He then found examples of this in humans. Vigilance, where a
man tracks his partner's phone calls, is an example of direct guarding. Emotional
blackmail is an example of negative inducements.
Wilson gave females a questionnaire about jealous relationships. He found that
those who scored highly on the questionnaire were 2 times more likely to suffer
from domestic violence and 72% more likely to end up in hospital as a result. This
supports the idea that jealousy causes aggression. However, it doesn't show that
parental uncertainty causes aggression.
Shackelford used a survey to test evolutionary predictions concerning retention
strategies on 461 males and 560 females who were in long term relationships.
Males answered questions on their use of mate retention strategies and were
assessed on how often they used 1 or 26 types of violent acts. Females answered
questions about their partners use of male retention strategies and the degree to
which violence was used against them. men's use of negative inducements and direct
guarding was positively correlated with violence scores. Emotional manipulation
was also used by men frequently. Females reported negative inducements and
direct guarding being positively correlated to their experience of violence. This
shows that jealousy causes aggression but can't prove that parental uncertainty
causes this jealousy.
If a female's mate becomes interested in another female, she will lose his
resources, triggering emotional jealousy. This suggests that there is a clear gender
difference resulting from gender differences in reproduction.
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Psychology unit 3 aggression
Bass' forced choice scenario study found that males believed they would get more
upset in situations connected to sexual infidelity, whilst females would be more
upset in situations connected to emotional infidelity. This supports the idea that
paternal uncertainty is involved in male jealousy and that females need the
resources from the male to help raise a child.…read more