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BY 2.1 ­ ALL ORGANISMS ARE RELATED THROUGH
THEIR EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY
Biodiversity ­ A measure of the number of different organisms on our planet.
Species ­ A group of organisms that can interbreed successfully to produce fertile offspring.
Habitat ­ A place where plants and animals can obtain the food, water, shelter and space they need
to live in.…read more

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Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Only ­ Over production of offspring
Cows ­ Consistency in numbers
String ­ Struggle for existence
Violins ­ Variety amongst offspring
Simultaneously ­ Similarities (Like produce like)
Forever ­ Formation of a new species
MODEL ESSAY ANSWER
All organisms produce a large number of offspring which, if they survived, would lead to a geometric
increase in the size of any population. Despite the overproduction of offspring, all organisms still
succeed in maintaining relatively consistent numbers.…read more

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The Binomial System
Introduced by Carl Linnaeus in 1753.
Latin is used as an international language for precise worldwide identification.
Rules:
1) The generic name always comes first and begins with a capital letter
2) The specific name comes second and is all written in lower case
3) Latin names should be written in italics if written on a computer, or underlined if handwritten.
The Five Kingdoms
1) Prokaryote
2) Protoctisa
3) Animalia
4) Plantae
5) Fungi
1) Prokaryote e.g.…read more

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Plantae e.g. Mosses
Eukaryotic
Photosynthetic
Multicellular
Autotrophic
Cellulose cell wall
5) Fungi e.g. Yeast
Reproduced by spores
Heterotrophic
Cell wall made of chitin
The Animal Kingdom
3 Phylum's:
1) Annelids e.g. Earthworm, lugworm, leech.
Closed circulatory system
Movement by peristalsis
Long, thin, segmented body
Thin permeable skin for gas exchange
2) Arthropods (Classes: Insects, Arachnids, Myriapods, Crustaceans)
Fluid filled body cavities
Jointed limbs
Segmented body
Exoskeleton (Adv. Protects organs from predators, Prevents water loss, Disadv.…read more

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Classes of Chordates:
1) Birds
2) Amphibians
3) Reptiles
4) Mammals
5) Fish
The Pentadactyl Limb
Homologous structure (similar in origin, despite its function)
One upper limb bone, two lower limb bones and an arrangement of five digits.
Found in mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles
Presence of a Pentadactyl limb suggests that organisms share a common ancestor
DNA Hybridisation
Comparing the base sequence in the DNA of different organisms. The more similarities, the
more closely related they are.…read more

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A tree showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species that are believed to
share a common ancestor. The more recently diverged the species is, the more closely related they
are to each other.…read more

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