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Evil and Suffering
Problem of evil is an ancient philosophical and theological
one. The universe was created out of nothing deliberately by
so how is it possible that things can go wrong within the
universe? Also human beings were created by God

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why evil exist. However the problem that this poses is that if
God was able to create the world out of nothing it doesn't
make sense to say that he is not all powerful.
If God is Omnibenevolent than he would have love for
the creation of the universe that…

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that there is no logical contradiction within the inconsistent

Evil categorised in two main ways: Moral evil which is
controlled by man due to free will agents where we have a
choice of choosing between good and evil and therefore God
can't be accountable for the existence of evil…

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Particular Problems
Animal Suffering
Christianity, Islam and Judaism believe that humans have a
higher status in the created order than animals and also do
not have the spiritual quality of a soul. But Buddhism and
Hinduism believe that animals do posses a spiritual nature
and are subject to laws of…

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Animal suffering allows human being to practice compassion
and develop positive spiritual qualities.
Innocent Suffering
It is unfair that those who are blameless and guiltless have to
suffer for example young children as victims of famine or
war. Why does an all loving God and all powerful God allow

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humankind have optimum conditions for humanity to grow
towards Gods. The existence of evil and suffering allows
humanity to respond in positive ways to the suffering of
others and develop qualities such as courage, charity and
dignity. Immense suffering is in order to provoke the
immense positive Reponses from humanity.…

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afterlife is to be a reward whether that is heaven or
favourable reincarnation/rebirth.
Free will is one of the most significant defences for the God
of classical theism in the face of the terrible suffering faced
by creation.

Augustinian theodicy
God creation was originally free from evil; evil did not…

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their guilt and sin so therefore we all deserve to face the
same punishment. We suffer through moral evil because it is
humankinds thought through their actions performed on the
basis of free will. The suffering that humans face as part of
the natural world is the direct result of…

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necessary for the free will of humanity? Evil already
existed if God decided to give us free will to choose
between good and evil and evil in the world is therefore
the responsibility of God.
Hell is also part of the created order, so God knew
angels would rebel and…

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evidence. This reduces the plausibility of the
creation story as a historical fact.
Irenaean theodicy
Irenaeus maintained that the presence of evil in the created
order was a deliberate action of an Omnibenevolent God
who wanted God's creation to develop the qualities that
would make them spiritually perfect. His ideas…


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